Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate
by Mark I Miravale, S.T.D.
The Coredemptrix, who uniquely participated with the Redeemer in obtaining the graces of redemption, continues her salvific role in distributing the graces of redemption with the Mediator and the Sanctifier. Part of this mediating role of Mary in God's dynamic drama of salvation includes the providential task of being the Advocate for the People of God. Along with mediating the graces of redemption from God to the human family, Mary also acts as the intercessory advocate for the People of God in their return to God. Mary not only mediates the graces of God to humanity as Mediatrix, but she also mediates the petitions of the human family back to God, in humble service of both. Mary intercedes to God the Father through the Son and by the Holy Spirit on behalf of humanity as our Advocate, especially in times of danger and difficulties.
Old Testament Role of the Queen Mother
We can see an authentic foreshadowing of the role of the Mother of Jesus as Advocate for the People of God in the Old Testament role of the Queen Mother, the role and office held by the mothers of the great Davidic kings of Israel.
In the Kingdom of Israel, the mother of the king (Heb., Gebirah, literally, "great lady" held the exalted office of the Queen Mother. Because the kings of Israel normally had numerous wives, the mother of the king was chosen to be the queen of the kingdom, due to her singular familial relationship with the king. The Gebirah or "Lady" of the kingdom assisted the king in the ruling of the kingdom in her noble office as the queen mother (cf. 2 Kings 11:3; 1 Kings 2:19; 1 Kings 15: 9-13; Jer 13:18,20).
The office and authority of the queen mother in her close relationship to the king made her the strongest advocate to the king for the people of the kingdom. The Old Testament understanding of an advocate is a person who is called in to intercede for another in need and particularly at court,  and no one had more intercessory power to the king than the queen mother, who at times sat enthroned at the right side of the king (cf. 1 Kings 2: 19-20). The queen mother also had the function of counselor to the king in regards to matters of the kingdom (cf. Prov 3 1:8-9; 2 Chr 22:2-4).
The recognized role of advocate of the queen mother with the king for members of the kingdom is manifested in the immediate response of King Solomon to his mother, Bathsheba, in this queen mother's petition for a member of the kingdom:
The Old Testament image and role of the queen mother, the "great Lady," as advocate to the king for the people of the kingdom prophetically foreshadows the role of the great Queen Mother and Lady of the New Testament. For it is Mary of Nazareth who becomes the Queen and Mother in the Kingdom of God, as the Mother of Christ, King of all Nations. The Woman at the foot of the Cross (cf. Jn 19:26) becomes the Great Lady (Domina) with the Lord and King, and thereby will be the Advocate and Queen for the People of God from heaven, where she is the "woman clothed with the sun...and on her head a crown of twelve stars" (Rev. 12:1).
Rev 12:1 - Advocate and Queen for the People of God
The role of the Mother of Jesus, the Great Woman and Lady of the Lord of Lords (Rev. 19:16) spans the whole of the written Word of God, from Genesis to Revelation, in her intimate union with Christ and the Church:
And Mary's providential office as Queen Mother and Advocate in the Kingdom of Christ, which is the Church, can be seen in the pages of the New Testament.
Queen Mother and Advocate
In the encyclical that teaches Mary's universal Queenship, Pope Pius XII tells us: "...the first one who with heavenly voice announced Mary's royal office was Gabriel the Archangel himself."
It is the angelic messenger of God that first refers to the office of the new Queen Mother and Advocate, in announcing to Mary, a young virgin from the house of David, that she will conceive a child that will receive the throne of David, and the kingdom of this new king will last forever:
The Queen Mother and Advocate of Christ, the New King, is acknowledged again in the words of her cousin Elizabeth to Mary: "And why is this granted me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?" (Lk. 1:44). The title, "Mother of my Lord" in the court language of the ancient Israel referred to the mother of the reigning king, who was addressed as "My Lord." Elizabeth, as a good Israelite and daughter of Abraham, refers to Mary's new office as Queen and Advocate through the inspiration and power of the Holy Spirit (cf. Lk. 1:41-42). Mary is acknowledged by the power of the Spirit as the new Lady of the new Lord.
The Queen Mother of the Lord manifests her role as Advocate for the people to the King at the wedding of Cana (cf. Jn. 2:1-11). At the specific need of the hosts and people of the wedding, the Lady intercedes to the Lord for the people (with a confidence beyond that of Queen Mother Bathsheba to King Solomon):
Again, Mary is referred to as the Woman in her part in the redemptive mission of her Son, and the Advocate
succeeds in obtaining from her Kingly Son the needs of the people (cf.
Jn. 8-11). Mary is the "spokeswoman of her Son's will," and "She
knows.. .she can point out to her Son the needs of mankind, and in fact, she has the 'right' to do so"
Mary is the only Woman who will bring forth Christ the King, "who is to rule all nations with an iron rod" (Rev. 12:5). She is the Woman foreshadowed in Genesis who will battle the dragon-serpent in her mission with the Saviour Son (cf. Gen. 3:15, Rev. 12:3-7). As the child (cf. Rev. 12:5) refers to the person of Jesus, so too, the woman who brought forth a child (cf. Rev. 12:5) refers to the person of Mary. Pope Paul VI states at the beginning of his Marian Apostolic Letter entitled, A Great Sign:
Mary, Queen Mother and Advocate, is crowned with the twelve stars (cf. Rev. 12:1) which symbolize both the twelve tribes of Israel and the twelve apostles of the new kingdom. The Woman of Revelation is both Mary and the Church,  which bespeaks the intimate and organic union in type between the Daughter Zion and the new Israel. As Scheeben remarks:
And at the end of her earthly life and following her glorious Assumption into heaven, the Daughter of Zion is crowned as the Queen in the Kingdom of God, in virtue of the her participation in the conquest of the kingdom with the Redeeming Saviour at the foot of the Cross (cf. Jn 19:26).
The Second Vatican Council tells us:
As Christ is the rightful King and Lord of all nations (cf. Rev. 5:9,10; Rev. 15:4; Rev. 19:6), Mary, Mother of the King and Coredemptrix in the conquest of the Redeemer, becomes the Queen Mother, the Gebirah, the great Mother and Lady of all nations.
But Mary's role as universal Advocate for the People of God does not cease after Mary's glorious Assumption and crowning as Queen, but rather, it definitively begins. The Council states:
Church Fathers and Mary Advocate
The Early Church was quick to confirm and utilize Mary's role as Advocate in God's drama of human salvation. By the second century, St. Irenaeus referred to Mary's advocacy to God for Eve, the first mother of the living, who through disobedience was in need of the helping intercession of another: "And whereas Eve had disobeyed God, Mary was persuaded to obey God, that the Virgin Mary might become advocate (advocata) of the virgin Eve." St. Ephraem called Mary the "friendly advocate of sinners."
St. Germanus of Constantinople describes the role of Mary Advocate as the greatest intercessory defender and protector of sinners after Christ:
The sixth century Saint Romanos pictures the Mother of Jesus addressing our first parents as advocate to Christ on their behalf: "Cease your lamentations, I shall be your advocate with my son. "
St. Bernard of Clairvaux makes plain Mary's role as advocate to Christ for humanity by saying, "You wish to have an advocate with him [Christ]. ..Have recourse to Mary;" and also "Our Lady, our Mediatrix, our Advocate, reconcile us to your Son, commend us to your Son, represent us to your Son." It is the Advocate who represents us before the Son, interceding for the human family and obtaining for us the graces of salvation, as alluded to in the great twelfth century liturgical antiphon, the Salve Regina:
Papal Teaching on Mary, Advocate for the People of God
The authoritative teachings of the Papal Magisterium continue the historical recognition and development of Mary's doctrinal role as Advocate for the People of God. From the sixteenth century onwards, the Mother of God has been repeatedly referred to by the popes as "our Advocate" with Christ on behalf of the faithful.
The papal teachings of the last two centuries have most fully recognized and officially taught this scriptural and patristic role of Advocate by the Mother of Jesus for the People of God.
Pope Pius VII, at the turn of the nineteenth century, teaches Mary's unique maternal role to be advocate to her Son in the order of intercession for humanity :
The advocacy of the Queen Mother with her Son the King truly exceeds that of all other saints.
Pope St. Pius X strongly affirms Mary's role as Queen and Advocate to the throne of God on behalf of the People of God in a papal prayer he composed for the fiftieth anniversary of the papal definition of the Immaculate Conception:
Pope Pius XI speaks of Mary's roles as Mediatrix of grace and Advocate for sinners as complementary tasks given to Mary by her Son:
Her functions as Mediatrix of all graces and Advocate for the faithful are closely bound since, as Pius XI tells us, they are both essentially linked to her relation to us as Mother:
Pius XI further encourages the youth, surrounded by many dangers and obstacles to God, to make Mary our true Advocate before God unto and at the hour of death:
Pius XII explains the task of Mary, Advocate with her Son, in her intercessory and conciliatory role on behalf of sinners:
For Pius XII, Mary is profoundly our "Queen and our most loving Advocate, Mediatrix of His graces, dispenser of His treasures!"
The Second Vatican Council confirms the Church's rich Tradition by professing the rightful invocation of Mary under the title, "Advocate." The Council also invokes Mary's powerful intercessory power with her Son at the end of the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church for the vital and necessary goal of authentic Ecumenism and the unity of all peoples into the one People of God:
Pope John Paul II, along with papal confirmation of Mary's title and role of Advocate, builds upon the conciliar example to recognize Mary's unique intercessory power to God on behalf of the grave contemporary need for unity of all Christians and all peoples into the one People of God. Mary's unique ability to intercede for Christian unity comes from her coredemptive role of having suffered for the Church at Calvary, as well as the intrinsic desire of a mother to unite all her children:
Truly it is only through the powerful advocacy of Mary, whom John Paul II invokes all Christians to recognize as "our common Mother," that we can hope for an authentic unity of God's children into the one Church of Christ:
It will only be through the power of the Holy Spirit, implored by the Advocate, that authentic Christian unity will be established, when all children of God can, in one voice, invoke Mary as our common Mother.
Rev. 22:17 - The Spirit and the Advocate
"The Spirit and the Bride say, 'Come" (Rev. 22:17). These inspired words from the last sentences of Sacred Scripture should enkindle a hopeful confidence in the People of God concerning the ongoing salvific work of the Holy Spirit and Mary, his Immaculate Spouse, in their contemporary mission of advocacy for the Church today.
It is noteworthy that the scriptural use of the term, advocate (Gk., parakletos, literally "called in to help" ), as used by Jesus at the Last Supper, refers to the coming aid of the Holy Spirit for the future Church (cf. Jn. 15:26). The later use of the same term for Mary's intercessory help to God for humanity as treated by the Church Fathers further bespeaks the intimate association of the Spirit and the Advocate in the mission of heavenly intercession as inferred by the Early Church Fathers. As Scheeben remarks, the title of Advocate
The intimate union of the Holy Spirit and Mary can be seen in terms of Mary's role as Advocate, interceding from humanity back to God, just as it was evidenced in Mary's role as Mediatrix, interceding from God to humanity.  The contribution of St. Maximilian Kolbe provides a theological foundation for Mary's role as Advocate in interceding back to God on behalf of humanity in inseparable association with the Holy Spirit.
St. Maximilan Kolbe explains Mary's role in the action of God and its reaction by humanity in this way:
Mary, therefore, is at the end of the sanctifying action of God (as Mediatrix of all graces), and at the beginning of the reaction of the human family back to God (as Advocate for the People of God). Mary is neither the end nor the starting point of God's action to humanity, but has an instrumental presence at both points because of her intimate union with the Holy Spirit.
We see this unified mission of advocacy between the Spirit and the Bride at the scriptural event of Pentecost. It is the task of Mary, Advocate for the People of God, to implore the descent of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, at times of particular need for the Church. She performs the task of aiding intercession in imploring the Spirit to descend upon the early disciples of the Lord, and will continue this advocating role with the Spirit for the Church. As John Paul II points out, quoting the words of the Council:
Mary's role as Advocate, imploring the aid of the Holy Spirit for the Church in times of need, will continue for the Church until the second coming of Christ, the time of which "only the Father knows" (cf. Mk: 13:32). St. Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort, singled out by John Paul II among the many witnesses and teachers for his exceptional contribution to "authentic Marian spirituality," eloquently describes the ongoing fruit of the Holy Spirit and Mary in the members of the Body of Christ, an intercessory and sanctifying action that will only cease with the end of the world:
John Paul II confirms Mary's vital role in the preparation of the People of God for Christ's second coming through her special intercession, and as the "mediatrix of mercy:"
And since Mary's role as Advocate is inseparable from the divine action of the Spirit, it will be the Spirit and the Bride who will jointly prepare the world for the glorious return of Christ the King (cf. Mt. 16:27; Mk. 13:26; 1 Thes. 4:15-17) and again say, "Come" (Rev. 22:17).
But indeed not only at Christ's second coming, but whenever the Church faces difficult times, the Spirit and the Advocate are called in to help the People of God. Clearly in our own age, the Church and the world are not without their significant dangers and trials. John Paul II has repeatedly referred to the anxious times of the contemporary Church and world, and the new threats which face contemporary humanity.
The present Holy Father specifies such grave concerns for the contemporary world in his encyclical On the Mercy of God:
Our own age, therefore, is certainly not exempt from the need to recognize and
call upon Mary as our Advocate today,
so that she can once again implore the renewed descent of the Holy Spirit for the spiritual revitalization of the
People of God in the modern world.
This Old Testament role as Queen and Advocate is fulfilled in the New Testament by Mary, the Mother of Christ the King and the rightful Queen and Advocate in the new Kingdom of God for the new Israel (cf. Lk 1: 32; Lk 1:44; Jn 2:1-11). The Great Lady of the New Testament intimately participates with the Lord in the reconquest of the Kingdom at the price of the Cross (Jn 19:26) and is, thereby, crowned as Queen of heaven and earth after her glorious Assumption into heaven (cf. Rev 12:1). As the victorious Christ is King of all nations(cf. Rev 15:3; 19:16; 1Tim 1:17; Rev 12:5), Mary is Queen and Mother of all nations (cf. Is 66:7-14; 1 Kings 2:19; Ps 87:1-5; Lk 1:32; Rev 12:1).
Far from ceasing her role as Queen and Advocate for the People of God after her glorious Assumption, Mary definitely begins her role as Advocate in heaven, interceding at the heavenly throne of her Son for the needs and wants of humanity. Mary's role as Advocate is inseparably linked to the Holy Spirit, the promised Paraclete of the Saviour (cf. Jn 15:26), to whom the Advocate interceded on behalf of the early disciples of the Lord at Pentecost (cf. Acts 1:4).
The united intercession of the Spirit and the Advocate (cf. Rev 22:17) for the Church will continue until the second coming of Christ the King (cf. Mk 13:7) and is particularly needed in our own critical hour of human history which, according to Pope John Paul II, is in fact surrounded by dangers and difficulties.
Let us join our present Holy Father in invoking the aiding intercession of Mary, Advocate for the People of God, through what might be considered a type of modern Sub Tuum, to implore the Holy Spirit for a "renewed outpouring" upon the faithful and the world today:
CO-REDEEMERS IN CHRIST
Every revealed truth about Mary, Mother of Jesus, bears profound meaning for the salvific journey of the Pilgrim Church. The Second Vatican Council tells us:
Mary is the pre-eminent model of the Church, and as virgin and mother, the Mother of Jesus embodies an immaculate and perfect example that the People of God seek to imitate in their quest "to conquer sin and increase in holiness."
Thereby, we can see that the doctrinal revelation of Mary as Coredemptrix with the Redeemer, along with her consequential roles as Mediatrix of all graces and Advocate for the People of God, manifests an important ecclesial model for the Church, which is seeking to become more like Mary, her "lofty type."
Concerning the relation between Mary and the Church, the Council states:
A similar distinction holds true regarding Mary's coredemptive role with Christ in relation to the Church. No other creature can claim to have intimately participated in the acquisition of the graces of redemption by having
In this sense, there is only one Coredemptrix with the Redeemer in the reconquest of the graces of Redemption (cf. Lk. 1: 38; Jn 19:26).
But as model and type, the Coredemptrix holds out a profoundly rich example to the People of God in their continual "seeking after the glory of Christ" and the ongoing pursuit of progressing in "faith, hope, and charity, seeking and doing the will of God in all things."
Cf. Col 1:24, 1 Cor 3:6 - "Co-redeemers in Christ"
The Marian model of Coredemptrix offers a particular richness to the People of God with regard to the Christian call and mission to become "co-workers," or co-redeemers in Christ (cf. 1 Cor 3:6) This constitutes God's sublime invitation to the faithful through St. Paul to "make up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ, for the sake of the body, that is, the Church" (Col 1:24).
Mary's life as Coredemptnx, in imitation of her Redeemer Son, is the dynamic personal statement and proof that in the Christian life suffering is redemptive. More than all the faithful, it is Mary Coredemptrix who answers by anticipation the Christian call to make up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ for the sake of his Body, the Church. Pope Pius XII says of Mary's coredemptive life in his encyclical on the Mystical Body:
But the People of God also, in following the meritorious example of Mary Coredemptrix, are called upon to participate generously in and contribute to "making up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ for the good of Christ's mystical Body" (Col 1:24).
"Christ did not conceal from his listeners the need for suffering," John Paul II tells us, and "Those who share in the sufferings of Christ preserve in their own sufferings a very special particle of the infinite treasure of the world's Redemption and can share this treasure with others."
In the great mysteries of the Redemption and the Mystical Body of Christ, we find an authentic redemptive meaning and merit for the Church through an appropriate Christian response to human suffering. John Paul further explains:
This is part of the sublime Christian call to be co-redeemers in Christ in following the meritorious example of the Coredemptrix. Pope Pius XII exhorts the faithful to do our part (as co-redeemers with the one Redeemer), in releasing the graces of Redemption to the human family:
Although the faithful cannot participate in the acquisition of the graces of Redemption as did the Redeemer and the Coredemptrix, our God has given us the sublime invitation and privilege of becoming co-redeemers in Christ by participating, through our meritorious sufferings, good Christian works, and acts of charity, in the application of these heavenly graces to the People of God and to the world, which is presently in such grave need of the generous graces of redemption.
Mary Coredemptrix constitutes for the People of God a rich model of the redemptive value of Christian suffering and good works, and a personal motherly invitation in the name of her Redeeming Son to answer the exalted invitation to become a coredeemer in Christ for the sake of the Church today. Especially in an era in which the Church could experience significant trial and suffering,  the revealed truth of Mary Coredemptrix offers the Church a lofty type for reminding the People of God that all human suffering and acts of Christian charity can be redemptive, and that the Cross of the Redeemer must again be implanted in the midst of the world and carried by the faithful for the world's salvation and sanctification.
The exalted roles of Mary, Mother of Jesus, as Coredemptrix with the Redeemer, Mediatrix of all graces with the Mediator and Sanctifier, and Advocate for the People of God, are providential roles performed by the Immaculate Mother of God and are firmly present in Sacred Scripture and Apostolic Tradition, as authoritatively and consistently taught by the Church's Magisterium.
In the Introduction to the Second Vatican Council's treatment on the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Council Fathers place the following self-expressed limitation to their chapter on our Lady
Not only were the Marian roles of Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate taught and propounded throughout the world in Catholic universities and seminaries during the time preceding the Council,  but the Council Fathers further refer to a greater doctrinal completion concerning the nature and role of the Mother of Jesus in her providential role in God's drama of human salvation.
With the profound contribution of our present Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, to
the understanding of the mediating mystery of Mary with Christ and the Church; with the added clarity offered by
theologians, such as St. Maximilian Kolbe, to the crucial role of the Holy Spirit in the person and role of Mary
in the Church; with a renewed gaze into the firm scriptural and patristic bases for these Marian roles as inspired
by the Second Vatican Council; and in light of the repeated and consistent teachings of the Church's Magisterium
on these Marian roles, there is only one final action that remains in bringing the Marian roles of Coredemptrix,
Mediatrix, and Advocate, providential roles obediently fulfilled and wondrously ordained by the perfect will of
God, into the fullest acknowledgment and ecclesial life of the People of God: that
our Holy Father, in his office as Vicar of Christ on earth and guided by the Spirit of Truth, define and proclaim
the Marian roles of Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate for the People of God, which in truth constitutes
one fundamental coredemptive
role with the Redeemer and Sanctifier under its various aspects, as Christian
dogma revealed by God, in rightful veneration of the Mother of Jesus,
and for the good of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church of Christ. Then, and only then, will the Church
have courageously and definitively proclaimed the whole truth about Mary, Mother of Christ and of the Church. Such a papal definition of Mary as Coredemptrix,
Mediatrix, and Advocate, if it be God's will, would be an ecclesial fulfillment of Mary's own self-prophecy, given
by the power of the Holy Spirit: "For behold, henceforth all generations
will call me blessed" (Lk. 1:48).
255. Sub Tuum Praesidium, cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 66 and footnote 21; for dating and more original reconstructions other than the common Latin translation cited, cf. Sub Tuum in O'Carroll, Theotokos, 1982, p. 336.
256. Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 66.
257. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
258. For a more comprehensive treatment of the Queen Mother Tradition in the Old
259. Cf Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel, New York, 1961, p. 117; G. Kirwin, The Nature of the Queenship of Mary, Catholic University of America, 1973, p. 297.
260. Cf. G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abr. v., Grand Rapids, 1990, p. 782-3.
261. Cf Kirwin, The Nature of the Queenship
of Mary, Catholic University of America, p.310.
263. Cf Pius XII, Ad Caeli Reginam, 1954.
264. John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 24.
267. Cf Barnabas Ahern, The Mother of the Messiah, Marian Studies, 12, 1961, p. 28; Kirwin, The Nature of the Queenship of Mary, Catholic University or America, p. 28; cf. also references of footnote 4.
268. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 21.
269. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris
Mater, n. 21.
271. Pope Paul VI, Apostolic Letter, Signum Magnum, 13 May 1967, p. 1; cf. Epistle of Mass for the feast of the Apparition of Mary immaculate, Feb.11.
272. Cf B. le Frois, S.V.D., The Woman Clothed With the Sun, (Apoc 12); Individual or Collective?, Rome, 1954; and The Woman Clothed With the Sun, American Ecclesiastical Review, 126, 1952, p. 161.
273. M.J. Scheeben, Mariology, v. 1, p. 15.
274. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 59.
275. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
276. St Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses V, c. 19, 1; Harvey, ed., Cantabrigiae, 1857, 2,
277. St. Ephraem, S. Ephraem Syri testim. de B.V.M. mediatione, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, IV, fasc. 2, 1927.
278. St. Germanus of Constantinople, Hom, in S. Mariae zonam, PG 98, 3306.
279. St. Romanos the Singer, Hymn on
the Nativity, II, Sources Chrétiennes, Lyons,110, 100. For a more comprehensive treatment of
Patristic and historical references to Mary as Advocate, including St. John Damascene, St. Modestus of Jerusalem,
Theoteknos of Livia, etc., cf. E. Eustriades, The Theotokos in Hymnography, Paris, 1930, 64; O'Carroll, Advocate, Theotokos, 1982, Dublin, p.6; G. Alastuary, Tratado de
la Virgen Santisima, Editorial Catolica, Madrid, 1952, tr.
280. St Bernard of Clairvaux, De Aqueductu 7, ed. Leclerq. V, 279; PL 183, 43C.
281.Antiphon of the Divine Office, Roman Liturgy of the Hours.
282. Pope Leo X, Papal Bull, Pastoris Aeterni, 6 October l520, cf. Documentos
283. Pope Pius VIIApostolic Constitution, Tanto studio, , 19 February 1805, Aur 7, 511.
284. Pope St. Pius X, Virgine sanctissima, Papal Prayer on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the definition of the Immaculate Conception, 8 September 1903; A.A. 1, p.97.
285. Pope Pius XI, Encyclical Letter, Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 May 1928, AAS 20. 185.
286. Pope Pius XI, Papal Allocution to French Pilgrims present for reading of decree "de tuto" (Canonization of Blessed Antida Thouret, 15 August 1933, L'Osservatore Romano, 16 August 1933; cf. Dante, Paradiso, Canto 33, 14, 15.
287. Pope Pius XI, Papal Allocution to French Pilgrims present for reading of "de tuto," (Canonization of Blessed Antida Thouret, 15 August 1933, L' Osservatore Rornano, 15 August 1933.
288. Pope Pius XII, Papal Allocution at the Canonization of Blessed Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort, 21 July 1947, AAS 39,408.
289. Pope Pius XII, Radio Message to Fatima, 13 May 1946, AAS 38, 264.
290. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
292. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 40.
294 Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 30.
295. Cf Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich,Theological Dictionary of the New Testament: Abridged Volume, Michigan, 1985, p. 782-3; cf. Scheeben, Mariology, v. II, p. 262.
296. Cf St. Irenaeus in J.H. Newman, Letter to Pusey, Anglican Difficulties, London, 1866. n.37: St. John Damascene. Serm. Dorm. II. PG 96. 733D: cf. O'Carroll. Advocate, Theotokos, p. 6.
297 M.J. Scheeben, tr. Geukers, Mariology, v.11, p. 262.
298. Cf. Chapter II of this work, section, The Holy Spirit and the Mediatrix of All Graces.
299. St. Maximilian Kolbe, Notes, 1938, ed. Manteau-Bonamy, tr. Arnandez, The Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, Marian Writings of Fr Kolbe, 1977, Franciscan Marytown Press. p. 39o
300. Cf. Manteau-Bonamy, The Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, Marian Writngs of St. Maximilian Kolbe, 1977, p. 39-40.
301. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 24; cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 59.
302. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 48.
303. St. Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort, tr., F. Faber, True Devotion to Mary, ns. 20,35; cf. also ns. 21,25.
304. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 41.
305. For example, cf. Pope John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis, 1978, ns. 15-17; Encyclical Letter, Dives in Misericordia, 1980, n. 15; Apostolic Exhortation, Christifideles Laici, ns. 3-7.
306. Pope John Paul II, Dives in Misericordia, 1980, n. 15.
307. Pope John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation, Christifideles
Laici, 1988, n. 64.
309. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium. ns. 63,64: cf. St. Ambrose. Expos. Lc. II. 7: PL 15, 1555.
310. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 65.
311. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 65.
312 Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 58.
313. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 65.
314. Pope Pius XII, Encyclical Letter, Mystici
Corporis, 1943, n. 110.
316. Pope John Paul II, Salvifici Doloris, n. 25.
318. Pope John Paul II, Salvifici Doloris, n. 24.
319. Pope Pius XII, Mystici Corporis, 1943, n. 106.
320. Cf John Paul II, Dives in Misericordia, n. 15; Christifideles Laici, ns. 3-7; Redemptor Hominis, n. 15-17.
321. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 54.
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