Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate
by Mark I Miravale, S.T.D.
Papal Teachings on Jn 19:26 and the
The modern Vicars of Christ have continued and authoritatively confirmed with a dynamic consistency the rich and full understanding of the role of the Mother of Jesus as the universal mediatrix of all the graces of Redemption. The popes have made the revealed truth of Mary, Mediatrix of all graces, part of the authoritative teachings of the ordinary Magisterium, with particular emphasis on the universal nature of Mary's mediating participation with the one Mediator concerning all graces flowing from the Redemption.
As we shall see, the Magisterium repeatedly teaches that since Mary uniquely participated with the Redeemer in the acquisition of every grace of the Redemption as Coredemptrix, for this reason, Mary has rightly been assigned by God to participate uniquely with the Mediator in the distribution of every grace that flows from the Redemption as Mediatrix)
All graces come from the Cross (cf. Rom 3:24; Col 1:20), and Mary's unique participation in the distribution of all the graces of Redemption to her spiritual children (cf. Jn 19:26) does not hinder but, rather, fosters an awareness of and receptivity to the universality of grace that comes to the human family from the one Redeemer and Mediator. The explicit papal teaching of Mary as Mediatrix of all graces, which represents an authentic interpretation of the Word of God both written and handed down, is manifested in three centuries of Papal teaching and is repeated with an indisputable consistency and ever greater clarity.
Pope Benedict XIV describes the Mother of Jesus as being "like a celestial stream through which the flow of all graces and gifts reach the soul of all wretched mortals." Pope Pius VII, pontiff at the beginning of the nineteenth century, summarized her role as universal mediatrix of graces in the expression, "Dispensatrix of all graces."
Pope Pius IX contributes significantly more development in the papal teaching of Mediatrix of all graces. Pius IX specifies that God has committed to Mary the treasury of all graces for distribution to the human family, which includes every grace and all salvation, so that humanity may know that all graces come through Mary:
He further refers to the Virgin Mother as; "...with her only-begotten Son, the most powerful Mediatrix and Reconciler of the world...."
Pope Leo XIII provides a true abundance of Papal pronouncements in official Magisterial documents concerning the doctrine of Mary, Mediatnx of all graces. For example, this pontiff refers to Mary as the "treasurer of our peace with God and dispensatrix of heavenly graces," as well as the one "through whom He has chosen to be the dispenser of all heavenly graces."
In his encyclical letter, Octobri mense, Leo XIII establishes Mary as the mediatnx of every grace which our Lord acquired for humanity in the mystery of the Cross as the revealed design of Almighty God:
Pope Leo XIII also officially quotes the formula for the transmission of grace and Mary's mediatorial role as given by St. Bernadine of Siena:
Pope St. Pius X provides a profound and developed Church teaching of Jn. 19:26 and Mary's universal mediation of grace in the monumental encyclical letter, Ad diem illum. St. Pius X spoke of the "ever united life and labors of the Son and the Mother" in the work of Redemption; the Mother who was "entirely participating in his passion," and who consequently became the "dispensatrix of all the gifts" acquired by the death of the Redeemer. St. Pius further tells us:
St. Pius X moreover explains that the strict right of the distribution of grace resides with Jesus Christ alone, but that due to her intimate union of suffering with the Redeemer, the task of the distribution of grace has been given to Mary, Mediatrix:
Pope St. Pius X once again clarifies that God alone is the source of all grace, and that Mary's role in this regard is limited to that of being the "principal minister" in distributing the graces of Redemption:
Pope Benedict XV confirms that the reason Mary is the Mediatrix of all graces in distributing the fruits of redemption is because she was first the Coredemptrix in the acquisition of the heavenly gifts of grace at Calvary.
Benedict XV further granted to the ordinaries of the world who petitioned for it, along with Belgium, permission to celebrate the Liturgical Office and Mass of Mary, Mediatrix of All Graces. "Let us come and adore Christ the Redeemer who has willed that we should have all good things through Mary," reads the invitatory prayer. But long before the Western liturgical feast of the Mediatrix of all graces, the liturgical celebrations of the East have possessed numerous references to Mary's universal mediation of grace. Mary is the "fountain of mercy," and "every help comes to the faithful through Mary;" she is "Mediatrix of law and grace," and the "dispensatrix of his treasures and the universal Queen." It is good to remember here that the Liturgy of the Church constitutes a certain incarnational doctrine embodied in ecclesial prayer, which presupposes the existence of a given doctrine before incorporating it into liturgical prayer. For "as we pray, so do we believe."
Pope Pius XI continues the rich papal tradition of Mediatrix by recalling this universal mediatorial function of Mary with the Mediator in numerous Church teachings.
Moreover, Pius XI refers to the,
In sum, Pius XI tells us that all that God gives to us is imparted through the mediation of Mary: "...We know that all things are imparted to us from God, the greatest and best, through the hands of the Mother of God."
Pope Pius XII made his own, and the Church's, the classic expression of St. Bernard: "And since, as St. Bernard declares,' it is the will of God that we obtain all favors through Mary,' let everyone hasten to have recourse to Mary." He re-affirms in another encyclical, "She teaches us all virtues; she gives us her Son and with him all the help we need, for 'God wished us to have everything through Mary."
From Pope Pius XII, we once again see another expression in this consistent line of papal teachings on Calvary (cf. Jn 19:26) that Mary's universal mediation of graces comes from her Coredemptive role with the Redeemer:
The Second Vatican Council gives the Church a great contribution in its explanation of Mary's mediation: a unique maternal participation in the salvific role of Jesus Christ the one Mediator (cf. 1 Tim. 2:5) by dispensing to us the "gifts of eternal salvation."
For this reason, the Council tells us,
Vatican II states that the Mother of Jesus is a mother to us in the order of grace because she uniquely cooperated in the saving work of the Redeemer:
The Mediatrix is the Coredemptrix continuing in the work of salvation by the distribution of the gifts of eternal life merited
The gifts of eternal salvation can only come from Calvary and the redeeming work of the Saviour and Mediator (cf. Jn 19:26). Mary has been granted the task by Almighty God of "bringing us the gifts of eternal salvation", and is thereby rightly "invoked by the Church" as the "Mediatrix." The footnote to the term, "Mediatrix" in the Council document Lumen Gentium refers to the several official teachings of the Magisterium of Mary's role as Mediatrix of all graces as previously taught by Pope Leo XIII, Pope St. Pius X, Pope Pius XI, and Pope Pius XII. The Council does not diminish, but rather assumes and confirms the rich and repeated papal tradition of the ordinary Magisterium about the Mediatrix of graces that has preceded it.
John Paul II and the Maternal
With particular eloquence and as a unique contribution, John Paul II teaches the doctrine of the universal motherhood of Mary in the order of grace, the "Mediatrix of graces."
John Paul describes Mary's new universal motherhood as Mediatrix in the order of grace as the final gift given by the Saviour to all humanity from Calvary:
In another place, John Paul refers to the gift of a universal and spiritual mother conferred by the dying Saviour at Calvary as a means of receiving fresh life by the power of the cross, while also specifying the wish of our Redeemer to penetrate the suffering souls of the faithful through the heart of his Mother:
This maternal mediation of Mary is universal, for it is a participation in the universal Redemption of the Mediator, and the distribution of the graces of Calvary which are likewise universal. As John Paul tells us,
Mary's maternal mediation is based on her profound respect for the dignity of each human person as a transcendent being created in the very image of God. A mother sees and loves each child individually, not only collectively as a family. In the same way, the motherly Mediatrix sees and loves each human person as a child who is in need of the spiritual milk of sanctifying grace.
Although Mary's mediation is as universal as the graces of Redemption merited by the Saviour, as well as the humanity for which the Redeemer died, John Paul reminds us that this gift of Mary's motherhood in the order of grace remains a personal gift that Christ makes to each individual:
"The Redeemer entrusts his mother to the disciple, and at the same time he gives her to him as his mother. Mary's motherhood, which remains man's inheritance, is a gift: a gift which Christ himself makes personally to each individual."
Pope John Paul II does not hesitate to teach as part of ordinary teachings of the Magisterium that the Mother of Jesus, in obedience to the Mediator's will,
that Mary "also has that specifically maternal role of mediatrix of mercy at his final coming;" and that Mary is rightfully invoked as the "Mediatrix of graces."
In summary, we see the papal teachings regarding Jn 19:26 in reference to the Mother of Jesus as a repeated and confirmed pronouncement of Mary's election by Almighty God as the Mediatrix with the Mediator, distributing all the graces victoriously merited by the Redeemer on Calvary.
In God's mysterious application of the graces of redemption to all humanity at various times, part of this mystery includes in a central way the mediating role of Mary, Mother of the Redeemer and the New Eve.  For all the graces of Redemption, regardless of the mysterious time of their distribution, came from the victory of Christ on the Cross. And it was Mary who uniquely participated with the Redeemer in the victorious conquest of salvation over the Serpent and sin  and, as maternal mediatrix, distributes the gifts of eternal life to the human family, restoring supernatural life to souls. Mary's universal role in God's mysterious distribution of graces takes nothing away from the primacy of Jesus Christ, the one Mediator. Rather, the Mediatrix of all graces manifests the power and dignity of the one Mediator and Author of all graces, upon whom Mary's universal mediation entirely depends.
By the victory of the Cross, Jesus takes his places as Lord (Dominus) and King of all nations and peoples. But because of Mary's participation in the victory of her Son, Jesus also makes his Mother, the Coredemptrix and Mediatrix, the Lady (Domina) and Queen of all peoples and nations. For Mary is the true Lady and Mother of the King, and the victory of Jesus the King embraces all humanity  and beyond to the glories of heaven.
Acts 1:4 - The Holy Spirit and the Mediatrix of all Graces
After humanity received its universal mother and mediatrix at the foot of the cross, Mary continued her maternal role with the early disciples of the Resurrected Lord. As our Holy Father explains, Mary was also
The motherly Mediatrix was present with the infant Church in the Upper Room, which was to receive the promised gift of the Holy Spirit, the Counselor and Sanctifier (cf. Jn 14:26; 16:12; 1Pet 1:2). But beyond being one among the rest, the presence and prayers of Mary Mediatrix had a singularly efficacious effect in interceding for the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. The Second Vatican Council tells us:
The words of the Council refer to this ever profound union of the Third person of the Holy Trinity with the Mother of Jesus, both of whom from the beginning of the work of the Redeemer and Mediator have experienced an intimate communion and spousal relationship. The Council refers to the
From the moment of Mary's immaculate entry into human existence, she was in profound union with the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit, from which her fullness of grace flowed.  It was the Holy Spirit, who mysteriously overshadowed the obedient Virgin in his providential mission at the Annunciation that immediately led to the Word becoming flesh for our redemption (cf. Lk 1:35,38; Mt 1:18; Gal. 4:4-5). The Virgin "was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit....That which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit"(Mt. 1:18,20).
When Mary's visitation to Elizabeth effected the sanctification of the unborn Baptist, the presence of the Holy Spirit was immediately manifested for
It was the Holy Spirit who inspired Elizabeth to pay proper recognition to the Mediatrix and the fruit of her womb.
This intimate union of the Spirit and the Bride (cf. Rev 22:17) is again manifested at the Presentation of the infant Lord in the temple, where the Holy Spirit inspired Simeon to enter the temple and inform the Virgin Coredemptrix that, "a sword will pierce your own heart, too" (Lk 2:25, 27, 35). This communio of Spirit and human Spouse must ultimately lead to the cross, for their union is unconditionally dedicated to the salvific mission of the Redeemer and Mediator. John Paul II refers to Mary's self-abandonment at Calvary through the all-pervading presence and power of the Holy Spirit:
So too, after the price of Redemption had been paid and its fruits still to be dispensed, the sanctifying action of the Holy Spirit and the maternal mediation of Mary rightly continues in intimate union. The spousal work of the Spirit and the Mediatrix in distributing the graces of redemption must continue "until the eternal fulfillment of all the elect." For it is the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, and Mary, the Mediatrix, who began the New Covenant work of salvation by bringing the world its redeemer at the Annunciation; and it will be the Spirit and the Mediatrix who will jointly accomplish the full aspect of the redemption of humanity in distributing the graces of eternal life to the People of God, a salvific task of mediating God's grace and mercy that will end only at the final and glorious coming of the victorious Lord and "King of the nations" (Rev. 15:3).
Later in the West, St. Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort expounds on the cooperation between the Spirit and the Mediatrix in the distribution of all graces. The Holy Spirit has communicated to Mary, his human spouse, all his heavenly gifts intended for humanity, and the Holy Spirit has willed to distribute the graces of redemption only through the virginal hands of Mary:
God the Holy Spirit is the divine trinitarian member with specific mission of the Father to "sanctify the Church forever" (cf. Jn 20:22; Rom 15:16; 1Pet 1:2). But the Holy Spirit has chosen to perform his divine act of sanctification, which flows from the cross of Christ, only through the mediation of his human but glor~fied spouse, Mary, through whom the Author of all graces was first mediated to the world by the power of the same Holy Spirit (cf. Lk 1:35; Mt 1:18, 20). The Holy Spirit, as a divine person, and Mary, as an exalted human person, were given one unified mission from the Father after Calvary: both were sent to take the ineffable graces from the sacrifice of the Redeemer and to sanctify and transform the face of the earth by generously dispensing the gifts of eternal life to the human family.
The eminent nineteenth century theologian M. J. Scheeben offers a most valuable contribution in explaining this most intimate cooperation between the Spirit and the Mediatrix in this work of personal sanctification. Scheeben compares the intimate working of Mary with the Holy Spirit as analogous to the way the humanity of Christ is an instrument of his sacred divinity:
Scheeben thereby refers to the Mother of Jesus as the "dynamic and authoritative organ of the Holy Spirit." The sanctifying activity of the Mediatrix must rightly be traced to her mission as the human instrument of the Holy Spirit in their one, unified mission of sanctification given by the Father. This understanding and model of Mary as the human instrument of the Holy Spirit in the distribution of graces, comparable to the humanity of Christ as human instrument of the Word, is a monumental breakthrough in understanding the mysterious distribution of graces by the Spirit and the Mediatrix.
In recent times, the contribution of St. Maximilian Kolbe offers the Church the more complete pneumatology and mariology necessary for a solid understanding of the sublime unity and role of the Holy Spirit and Mary in the mysterious distribution of the graces of redemption.
St. Maximilian also uses the example of the inseparable union between the divine nature and human nature in the one divine person of Jesus Christ to express the ineffable union between the Holy Spirit and Mary. This union is the theological basis of why, as St. Maximilian states, the Holy Spirit has chosen to act only through the mediation of Mary:
With the true distinction between the natures and persons of the Holy Spirit and Mary, St. Maximilian does not hesitate to say that Mary is in a certain sense the "incarnation" of the Holy Spirit. This is an effort to convey theologically this most sublime union of the Spirit and the Mediatrix.
"The third Person of the Blessed Trinity never took flesh; still, our human word 'spouse' is far too weak to express the reality of the relationship between the Immaculata and the Holy Spirit. We can affirm that she is, in a certain sense, the 'incarnation' of the Holy Spirit."
Just as the Second Vatican Council refers to Mary as the "sanctuary of the Holy Spirit," a concrete human vessel where the Sanctifer uniquely and profoundly dwells, so, too, the words of St. Maximilian describing Mary as in a certain sense the incarnation of the Holy Spirit bespeak the total dwelling, spiritually and bodily, of that Spirit who never actually took on flesh, but who filled and sustained the Virgin from the moment of her Immaculate Conception.
The Holy Spirit is the divine sanctifier and the distributor of the graces of the redemption. As St. Maximilian explains,
And the divine Sanctifer, sent by the Father at the price of the redemption by the Son, fulfills his mission of earthly sanctification only through the spousal mediation of Mary Mediatrix of all graces, a supernatural activity which is based on their ineffable and providential union. As St. Maximilian confirms,
It is because of such monumental insights into the mystery of the Mother of Jesus that St. Maximilian Kolbe is designated by Pope John Paul II as "the Apostle of a New Marian Era:"
The Holy Spirit is inexpressibly united
to Mary, who is the spouse and human instrument of the Holy Spirit
in their one, unified mission of sanctification. Since all the graces of redemption come through the Holy Spirit, and the Holy
Spirit acts only through the Mediatrix, then Mary is again rightly
seen as the mediatrix of all the graces of redemption given to the human family.
The role of universal Mother and Mediatrix of graces for humanity was fully established at the Cross with the words of the dying Saviour in giving to humanity his own mother as the final gift of his redemptive sacrifice (cf. Jn 19:25-27). Here Mary is granted the role of Mediatrix of all graces, to distribute all the graces of the redemption, which definitively begins after her glorious Assumption into heaven. 
The task of the Mediatrix in distributing all the graces of redemption is performed in intimate union with the Holy Spirit, the divine Sanctifier (cf. Lk 1:35; Lk 2:25,27; Acts 1:4; Rev 22:17). Mary is the human instrument of the Holy Spirit in the mission of sanctification, and the Spirit wills to distribute all his heavenly gifts of grace, which were merited by the Redeemer on the Cross, only through the Mediatrix, his exalted human spouse.
We see then that the doctrine of Mary as Mediatrix of all graces is present in the Word of God, written and handed down, as well as consistently taught by the Church's Magisterium and experienced in the prayer and liturgical life of the People of God. The Church has already recognized in her rich ecclesial life that the Mother of Jesus is the Mediatrix of all graces, and she rightly teaches that "it is the will of God that we obtain all favors through Mary."
176. For example, cf. Pope St. Pius X, Ad ilium diem, 1904; Pope Benedict XV, Inter Solidicia, 1918; Pope Pius XII, AAS 38, 1946, p. 266; John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano, Issue n. 20, 1983.
177. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 60.
178 Cf. Vatican Council II, Dei Verbum, n. 9, 10.
179. Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758), Op. Omnia, v. 16, ed., Prati, 1846, p. 428.
180. Pope Pius VII (1800-1823), Ampliatio privilegiorum ecclesiae B.M. Virginis ab angelo salutatae in coenobio Fratrum Ordinis Servorum B. M. V. Florentiae, A.D., 1806; in J. Bourasse, Summa aurea..., v. 7, Pans, 1862, col. 546.
181. Pope Pius IX (1846-1878), Encyclical Letter, Ubi Primum, 1849.
182. Pope Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus, 1854.
183. Cf. Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) in the following encyclical letters: Supremi Apostolatus officio, 1883, ASS 16, 1113; Superiore Anno, 1884, ASS 17, 49; Jucunda Semper, 1 884, ASS 27,179; Octobre Mensi, 1891 , ASS 24, 196; Adjutricem populi, 1895, ASS 28, 130; Diuturni temporis spatium, 1898, ASS 31, 146; Apostolic Letter, Parta humano generi, 1901, ASS 34, 195. The immediately following citations from these documents by Leo XIII will be cited by only the magisterial document title and date.
184. Pope Leo XIII, Supremi apostolatus, 1883.
185. Pope Leo XIII, Superiore anno, 1884.
186. Pope Leo XIII, Octobri Mense, 1891.
187. Pope Leo XIII, Jucunda Semper, 1894; cf. St. Bernardine of Siena, Serm. in Nativit. B.V.M., n. 6.
188. Pope St. Pius X, Ad diem illum, AAS 36, 1904, p.453.
189. Pope Pius IX, Ad diem illum, 1904; cf., Eadmer, De Excellentia Virginis Mariae, c. 9.
190. Pope St. Pius X, Ad diem illum, 1904; cf., St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Serm. de temp., in Nativ. B. V. de Aquaeductu, n. 4; St. Bernadine of Siena, Quadrag., de Evangelio aeterno, Serm. X, a3, c.3.
191. Pope St. Pius X, Ad diem illum, 1904. For further reference of Pope St. Pius X on the Mediatrix of all graces, cf. Litterae Apostolicae, AAS 2, 27 August 1910, 901.
192. Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922), Apostolic Letter, Inter Sodalicia, AAS 10, 1918, p. 182. For other papal references to Mediatrix of all graces by Benedict XV,
cf. Encyclical Letter, Fausto appetente die, AAS 13, 1921,
p. 334; Letter to Cardinal
193. Cf. La Vie Diocèsaine, v. 10, 1921, pp. 96-106, Rescript of the Sacred Congreganon of Rites, 12 January 1921. Based on the Mass and Office of Mediatrix of all Graces of 1921, the Congregation for Divine Worship approved a Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother and Mediatrix of Grace in 1971, cf., Collection of Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary, v. 1, Sacramentary, Catholic Book Co., New York, 1992. The new liturgy refers to Mary as the "treasure-house of all graces", Entrance antiphon, p. 223.
194. Byzantine Liturgy, cf. S. Salaville, Marie dans la liturgie byzantine ou grec-slav, in Maria. Etudes surla Sainte Vierge, ed. H. Du Manoir, S.J., v. 1, Paris, 1949, p. 303.
195. Coptic Liturgy, cf., Kitab al ebsallyati wa al Turwhat, Cairo, 1913, p. 131.
196. Armenian Liturgy, cf., V. Tekeyan, La Mère de Dieu dans la liturgie armenienne, in Maria. Etudes surla Sainte Vierge, ed. H. du Manoir, S.J., v. 1, Paris, 1949, p. 359.
197. Chaldean Liturgy, cf. A.M. Massonat, O.P., Marie dans la liturgie chaldéenne, in Maria. Etudes sur la Sainte Vierge, ed., H. du Manoir, S.J., v. 1, Pans, 1949, p. 348.
198. Cf. Pope Pius XII, Mediator Dei, AAS 39, 1947,; cf., C. Gumbinger, O.EM.Cap., Mary in the Eastern Liturgies, Mariology, v.1, p 185; cf. A. Robichaud, S.M., Mary, Dispensarrix of All Graces, Mariology, v. II, p.436; "Lex orandi, lex credendi".
199. Pope Pius XI (1922-1939), Apostolic Letter, Cognitum sane, AAS18, p. 213.
200. Pope Pius XI, Encyclical Letter, Miserentissimus Redemptor, AAS 20,1928, p. 178.
201. Pope Pius XI, Encyclical Letter, Ingravescentibus malis, AAS 29, 1937, p. 380. For other references by Pius XI to Mediatrix of graces, cf., Apostolic Letter, Galliam Ecclesiae filiam, AAS 14, 1922, p. 186; Apostolic Letter, Exstat in civitate, AAS 16, 1924, p. 152.
202. Pope Pius XII (1939-1957), Superiore anna, AAS 32, 1940, p. 145. For usage of same expression by Pius XII, cf., AAS 45, 1953, p. 382,
203. Pope Pius XII. Mediator Dei, 1947.
204. Pope Pius XII, Radio message to Fatima, 13 May 1946, AAS 38, p.266. For other references to Mediatrix of graces by Pius XII, cf., Mystici Corporis,MS 35, 1943, p. 248; L'Osservatore Romano, April 22-3, 1940, p. 1; Decree of Sacred Congregation of Rites on Canonization of Louis M. de Montfort, AAS 34, 1942, p. 44. In this last reference, Pius XII recognizes the miracles for the canonization of de Montfort, and the decree reads: "Gathering together the Tradition of the Fathers, the Doctor Mellifluus [St. Bernard of Clairvaux] teaches that God wants us to have everything through Mary. This pious and salutary doctrine all theologians at the present time hold in common accord." This 1942 decree confirms the presence of the doctrine of Mediatrix of all graces both in the Tradition of the Church, as well as in the common consensus of theologians.
205. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
206.Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n, n. 60.
207. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
208. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 61.
209. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
210. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
211. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
212. Pope Leo XIII, Adjutricem populi, 1895.
213. St. Pius X, Ad diem illum, 1904.
214. Pope Pius XI, Miserentissimus, 1928.
215. Pope Pius XII, Radio message, 13 May 1946, AAS 38, p.268.
216. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, ns. 21-24; Ch. III, Maternal Mediation, ns. 38-45.
217. Pope John Paul II, Christ is our
Way, Mary our Sure Guide, Papal Address at Orte, Italy, 17 September
1989, L'Osservatore Romano,
2 October1989, p. 3.
219. Pope John Paul II, Salvifici Doloris, n. 26.
220. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n.23.
221. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 45.
222. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 21.
223. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, 11. 41.
224. Pope John Paul II, Christ is our Way, Mary our Sure Guide, Papal Address at Orte, Italy, 17 September 1989, L'Osservatore Romano, 2 October 1989, p. 3.
225. When we say that all graces are distributed through the mediation of Mary, we must still distinguish her modes of mediation. Mary's willed distribution of graces to humanity (we are not here including the angelic realm) definitively begins after her glorious Assumption into heaven. Before her Assumption, we talk of Mary's distribution of graces in a more general manner, that is, that, due to her participation in the obtaining of the graces of redemption as Coredemptrix, Mary indeed mediates in regards to all graces, since all the graces of redemption come from the Cross. Therefore, regarding both graces distributed before Mary's Assumption and the graces immediately conferred in the sacraments, Mary can still be said to have a mediating role in each and every grace of redemption through her role as Coredemptrix, participating in the acquisition of all the graces of Calvary, as what may be called a final cause.
226. Cf. St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses, 1, 3, c. 22, n. 4; PG 7, p. 958-959.
227. Cf. Pope Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus, 1854.
228. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, ns. 61, 62.
229. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 60.
230. Cf. Pope Pius XII, Encyclical Letter, Ad Reginam caeli, AAS 46,1954, pp. 633-636.
231. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Mary's Motherhood acquired at the Foot of the Cross, Papal Address at General Audience, 11 May 1983, L'Osservatore Romano, Issue n.20, 1983, p. 1.
232. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 40.
233.Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 59.
234. Vatican Council II, Presbyterorum
Ordinis (Decree on the Ministry and Life of
235. Cf. Pope Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus, 1854; Pope Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation, Marialis
Cultus, 1974, n. 26.
237. Cf. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 62.
238. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, n. 41.
239. Theophanes of Nicaea (d. 1381), Serm.
in SS Deiparam, ed. M. Jugie, A.A.,
240. St. Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort (1673-1716), True Devotion to Mary, n.25.
241. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Letter, Dominum et Vivificantem, n. 25.
242. Cf. Pope John Paul II, Dominum et
Vivificantem, ns. 3, 11,14.
244. M. J. Scheeben, Mariology, v. II, p. 186.
245. St. Maximilian Kolbe's Theology of the Holy Spirit and Mary is contained in letters, lectures, and diaries, much of which is still unpublished at this time. The heart of his Marian contribution can be found in H. M. Manteau-Bonamy, O.P., Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, tr. by Richard Amandez, F.S.C., from the French original, La Doctrine mariale du Pere Kolbe, Esprit-Saint et Conception Immaculee, Libertyville, II, Franciscan Marytown Press, 1977; cf. S. Ragazzini, O.F.M. Conv., L'Immacolata e lo Spirito Santo, La spiritualita e l'apostolato mariano del Servo di Dio P. Massimiliano M. Kolbe dei frati Minori Conventuali in Ephemerides Mariologicae, Madrid, 10,1960, pp. 223-255; Aim Higher: Marian Thoughts of St. Maximilian Kolbe, O.F.M. Conv., Ndola, Zambia, Mission Press, 1976; Stronger Than Hatred: A Collection of Spiritual Writings, New York, New York City Press, 1988; Piacentini, Ernesto, OFM Conv, Immaculate Conception: Panorama of the Marian Doctrine of Blessed Maximilian Kolbe, tr.,Donald Kos, OFM Conv., Kenosha, WI, Franciscan Marytown Press, 1975.
246. St. Maximilian Kolbe, Letter to Fr. Salezy Mikolajczyk, 28 July 1935, as found in Manteau-Bonamy, Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, p. 41.
247. St. Maximilian Kolbe, Conference 5 February 1941, as found in Manteau-Bonamy, Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, p. 50.
248. Vatican Council II, Lumen Gentium, n. 53.
249 Cf. Manteau-Bonamy, Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, p. 50-52.
250. St. Maximilian Kolbe, Miles Immaculatae, I, 1938, Manteau-Bonamy, Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, p. 90.
251. St. Maximilian Kolbe, Letter to Father Mikolajczyk, 28 July 1935. ManteauBonamy, Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit, p. 99.
252. Pope John Paul II, Mary's Sanctity
in the Order of Salvation, Immaculate Conception Homily at St. Mary
Major's Basilica, 8 December 1982, L' Osservatore Romano, Issue n. 50, 1982, p. 1,4.
254. Cf. Pope Pius XII, Superiore anno, AAS 32,1940, p. 145; Mediator Dei, 1947.
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