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Proposed Last (5th)
Marian Dogma


Mary Co-redemptrix: A Response to 7 Common Objections

Dr. Mark Miravalle
Professor of Theology and Mariology
Franciscan University of Steubenville
March 25, 2001


To Lysbeth, my beloved wife; and to our precious children, John-Mark, Michael, Christina, Marianna, Joseph, Annaleah, Mary-Bernadette, and Philumena.


Ernesto Cardinal Corripio Ahumada
Mexico City
May 1, 2001

Part 1

On December 23, 2000, The
New York Times ran a major story on the international Catholic movement Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, which is seeking to encourage the papal definition of the Blessed Virgin Mary as “Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate.” Existing Catholic teaching of Mary as a Co­redemptrix refers to the unique participation of Mary, Mother of Jesus, in the redemption accomplished by Jesus Christ, the divine Redeemer.

New York Times article was in turn reprinted in a great number of U.S. major newspapers and therefore sparked great and high-spirited debate across the country and internationally over the idea of the Blessed Virgin as a “Co-redemptrix” with Jesus Christ.

Although slightly different in their expression, most objections to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary as Co-redemptrix fall into the same basic categories. The following is a summary of seven common objections to Mary as Co-redemptnx, taken principally from recent newspaper publications, both secular and Christian. A basic response will be offered to each objection.

Objection 1: Calling Mary a “Co-redemptrixplaces her on an equal level with Jesus Christ, the Divine Son of God, making her something like a fourth person of the Trinity, a goddess or quasi-divine goddess, which is blasphemy for any true Christian.

The Catholic Church’s use of the title “
Co-redemptrix” as applied to the Mother of Jesus, in no sense places Mary on a level of equality with Jesus Christ, the Divine Redeemer. There is an infinite difference between the divine person of Jesus Christ and the human person, Mary. Rather, papal teaching has used the title
Co-redemptrix” to refer to the unique participation of the Mother of Jesus with and under her divine son in the work of human redemption.

The term “
co-redemptrix” is properly translated “the woman with the redeemer” or more literally “she who buys back with [the redeemer].” The prefix “co” comes from the Latin term “cum” which means “with” and not “equal to.” Co-redemptrix therefore as applied to Mary refers to her exceptional cooperation with and under her divine son Jesus Christ, in the redemption of the human family, as manifested in Christian Scripture.

With Mary’s free and active “
fiat” to the invitation of the angel Gabriel to become the mother of Jesus, “Be it done unto me according to your word(Lk. 1:38), she uniquely cooperated with the work of redemption by giving the divine Redeemer his body, which was the very instrument of human redemption. “We have been sanctified by the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all(Heb. 10:10), and the body of Jesus Christ is given to him through the free, active, and unique cooperation of the Virgin Mary. By virtue of giving flesh to the “Word made flesh(Jn. 1:14), who in turn redeems humanity, the Virgin of Nazareth uniquely merits the title Co-redemptrix. In the words of the late Mother Teresa of Calcutta, “Of course Mary is the Co-redemptrix — she gave Jesus his body, and his body is what saved us.[1]

The New Testament prophecy of Simeon in the temple also reveals the suffering, co-redemptive mission of Mary in direct union with her Redeemer son in their one unified work of redemption:

Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, ‘Behold, this child is set for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and will be a sign of contradiction, and a sword shall pierce through your own soul, too(Lk. 2:34-35).

But the climax of Mary’s role as Co-redemptrix under her divine son takes place at the foot of the Cross, where the total suffering of the mother’s heart is obediently united to the suffering of the Son’s heart in fulfillment of the Father’s plan of redemption
(cf. Gal. 4:4). As the fruit of this redemptive suffering, Mary is given by the crucified Savior as the spiritual mother of all peoples,: “Woman, behold your son!’ Then he said to the dis­ciple, ‘behold, your mother!(Jn. 19:27). As described by Pope John Paul II, Mary was “spiritually crucified with her crucified son” at Calvary, and “her role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son. [2] Even after the accomplishment of the acquisition of the graces of redemption at Calvary, Mary’s co-redemptive role continues in the distribution of those saving graces to the hearts of humanity.

The earliest Christian writers and Fathers of the Church explained Marian co-redemption with great profundity in simplicity in the first theological model of Mary as the “
New Eve.” Essentially, they articulated that as Eve, the first “mother of the living(Gen. 3:20), was directly instrumental with Adam, the father of the human race, in the loss of grace for all humanity, so too Mary, the “New Eve,” was directly instrumental with Jesus Christ, whom St. Paul calls the “New Adam(Cf. 1 Cor. 15:45-48), in the restoration of grace to all humanity. In the words of 2nd century Church Father, St. Irenaeus: “Just as Eve, wife of Adam, yet still a virgin, became by her disobedience the cause of death for herself and the whole human race, so Mary, too, espoused yet a virgin, became by her obedience the cause of salvation for herself and the whole human race. [3]

In light of her unique and direct cooperation with the Re­deemer in the restoration of grace for the human family
(cf. Gen. 3:15), Mary became universally known in the early Church as the “New Mother of the Living,” and her instrumental co-redemption with Christ was well summed up in the succinct expression of 4th century Church Father, St. Jerome: “Death through Eve, life through Mary.[4]

Explicit references to Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in redeeming or “
buying back” humanity from the slavery of Satan and sin is present throughout Christian Tradition. For example, the 7th century Church writer, Modestus of Jerusalem, states that through Mary, we “are redeemed from the tyranny of the devil.[5] St. John Damascene (8th century) greets her: “Hail thou, through whom we are redeemed from the curse.[6] St. Bernard of Clairvaux (12th century) preaches that “through her, man was redeemed.[7] The great Franciscan Doctor, St. Bonaventure (13th century), aptly summarizes Christian Tradition in this teaching: “That woman (namely Eve), drove us out of Paradise and sold us; but this one (Mary) brought us back again and bought us.[8]

Although there was never any question of the total and radical dependency of the Virgin Mary’s participation in redemption upon the divine work and merits of Jesus Christ in the minds of the Church fathers and doctors, nonetheless early Christian Tradition did not hesitate to teach and preach the unparalleled intimate participation of the woman, Mary, in the “
buying back” or redeeming of the human race from the slavery of Satan. As humanity was sold by a man and a woman, so it was God’s will that humanity would be bought back by a Man and a woman.

It is upon this rich Christian foundation that 20th century popes and saints have used the title Co-redemptrix for Mary’s unique role in human redemption, as exemplified in the contemporary use of Co-redemptrix for Mary by Pope John Paul II on five occasions during his present pontificate.
[9] Co-redemptrix” as used by the popes means no more that Mary is a goddess equal with Jesus Christ than St. Paul’s identification of all Christians as “God’s co-workers(1 Cor. 3:9) means that Christians are gods equal to the one God.

All Christians are rightly called to be co-workers or “
co-redeemers” with Jesus Christ (cf. Col. 1:24) in the reception and cooperation with grace necessary for our own redemption and the redemption of others — personal subjective redemption made pos­sible by the historic objective redemption or “buying back” accomplished by Jesus Christ, the “New Adam,” the Redemptor, and Mary, the “New Eve,” the Co-redemptrix.

Objection 2: Calling the Blessed Virgin Mary “Co­redemptrix” is against proper Christian ecumenism, as it leads to division between Catholics and other Christians.

Arguably the most commonly posed objection to the use of Co-redemptrix (let alone any potential definition of the doctrine) is its perceived opposition to Christian ecumenism. Therefore we must begin with an accurate definition of authentic Christian ecumenism and its appropriate corresponding activity as understood by the Catholic Church.

In his papal document on ecumenism
Ut Unum Sint (“that they all may be one(Jn. 17:21), Pope John Paul II defines authentic Christian ecumenism in terms of prayeras the soul” and dialogueas the body” working towards the ultimate goal of true and lasting Christian unity. [10] At the same time, the Catholic imperative to work and strive for Christian unity does not permit in any degree the reduction or dilution of Catholic doctrinal teaching, as such would both lack Catholic integrity and concurrently be misleading in dialogue with other non-Catholic Christians as to what the Catholic Church truly believes.

As the Second Vatican Council clearly teaches in terms of ecumenical dialogue, “
It is, of course, essential that doctrine be clearly presented in its entirety. Nothing is so foreign to the spirit of ecumenism as a false conciliatory approach which harms the purity of Catholic doctrine and obscures its assured genuine meaning.[11]

John Paul II further explains: “
With regard to the study of areas of disagreement, the Council requires that the whole body of doctrine be clearly presented. At the same time, it asks that the manner and method of expounding the Catholic faith should not be a hindrance to dialogue with our brothers and sisters.... Full communion of course will have to come about through the accep­tance of the whole truth into which the Holy Spirit guides Christ’s disciples. Hence all forms of reductionism or facile ‘agreement’ must be absolutely avoided.[12]

An accurate understanding then of ecumenism from the Catholic perspective is the critical Church mandate to pray, to dialogue, and to work together in charity and in truth in the seeking of true Christian unity among all brothers and sisters in Christ, but
without any compromise in presenting the full doctrinal teachings of the Church. The present pope, so personally dedicated to authentic Christian unity, again affirms: “The unity willed by God can be attained only by the adherence of all to the content of revealed faith in its entirety. In matters of faith, compromise is in contradiction with God who is Truth. In the Body of Christ, ‘the way, the truth, and the life’ (Jn.l4:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?[13]

Let us now apply this understanding of ecumenism to the ques­tion of Mary Co-redemptrix. The Co-redemptrix title for Mary has been used in repeated papal teaching, and the doctrine of Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in the redemption of humanity constitutes the repeated doc­trinal teaching of the Second Vatican Council:

....She devoted herself totally, as handmaid of the Lord, to the person and work of her Son, under and with him, serv­ing the mystery of redemption, by the grace of Almighty God. Rightly, therefore, the Fathers see Mary not merely as passively engaged by God, but as freely cooperating in the work of man’s salvation through faith and obedience. [14]

And further:

Thus the Blessed Virgin advanced in her pilgrimage of faith, and faithfully persevered in union with her Son unto the cross, where she stood, in keeping with the divine plan, enduring with her only begotten Son the intensity of his suffering, associated herself with his sacrifice in her mother’s heart, and lovingly consenting to the immolation of this victim which was born of her. [15]

And further:

She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ, she presented Him to the Father in the temple, shared her Son’s suffering as He died on the cross. Thus, in a wholly singu­lar way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope, and burning charity in the work of the Savior in restoring su­pernatural life to souls. For this reason she is a mother to us in the order of grace. [16]

Thereby, there is no question that Marian Co-redemption constitutes the doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church and as such must be presented in any true articulation of Catholic teaching, which critically includes the domain of true ecumenical dialogue.

To therefore claim that Mary Co-redemptrix in title and doctrine is in any way contrary to the ecumenical mission of the Church is fundamentally to misunderstand the ecumenical mission of the Church itself. Full Catholic doctrine, including the doctrine of Marian co-redemption, must be included for any true dialogue seeking Christian unity. Moreover, the purposeful absence of Mary Co­redemptrix in full ecumenical dialogue and in the overall ecumenical mission of the Church would lack integrity and justice for the Catholic ecumenist towards non-Catholic Christians who have pre­sumably, on their part, brought the full teachings of their particular ecclesial body to the tables of dialogue. To return to the Christian admonition of John Paul II: “
In the Body of Christ, ‘the way, the truth, and the life’ (Jn.14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?[17]

Therefore calling the Blessed Virgin Mary a “
Co-redemptrix” in light of Christian Scripture and Christian Tradition is in no sense contrary to ecumenism, but rather constitutes an essential element of the Christian integrity demanded by true ecumenism, since Marian co-redemption constitutes a doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church.

In fact, if the doctrine of Co-redemptrix presently constitutes a source of confusion for some Christians, connoting for some an image of goddess or other concepts of Marian excesses, then it appears all the more appropriate that a clear articulation of this Marian doctrine be given to brother and sister Christians in ecumenical dialogue. There is also the potential benefit of a formal papal definition providing the greatest possible clarity from the highest possible Catholic authority. In the words of the late John Cardinal O’Connor of New York: “
Clearly, a formal papal definition would be articulated in such precise terminology that other Christians would lose their anxiety that we do not distinguish ad­equately between Mary’s unique association with Christ and the redemptive power exercised by Christ alone.[18]

Another legitimate ecumenical perspective on Marian co-redemption and her subsequent spiritual motherhood is that as spiritual mother of all peoples, Mary can be a principal means of Christian unity among divided Christian brothers and sisters, rather than being its prime obstacle. Lutheran pastor Rev. Dr. Charles Dickson calls on Protestant Christianity to re-examine the documented positive Marian defense and devotion of many of its own founders, as manifested, for example, in the words of Martin Luther in his
Commentary on the Magnificat: “May the tender Mother of God herself procure for me the spirit of wisdom profitably and thoroughly to expound this song of hers.... May Christ grant us a right under standing ... through the intercession and for the sake of His dear Mother Mary...." [19]  Luther goes on to call Mary the “workshop of God,” the “Queen of heaven,” and states: “The Virgin Mary means to say simply that her praise will be sung from one generation to another so that there will never be a time when she will not be praised.[20]

On the role of Mary’s universal spiritual motherhood as an instrument of Christian unity, Dr. Dickson comments further:

In our time, we are still faced with the tragic divisions among the world’s Christians. Yet, standing on the brink of a bright new ecumenical age, Mary as model of catholicity, or universality, becomes even more important. In the course of many centuries from the beginning of the Church, from the time of Mary and the Apostles, the motherhood of the Church was one. This fundamental motherhood cannot vanish, even though divisions occur. Mary, through her motherhood, maintains the universality of Christ’s flock. As the entire Christian community turns to her, the possi­bility of a new birth, a reconciliation, increases. So Mary, the mother of the Church, is also a source of reconciliation among her scattered and divided children. [21]

Objection 3 : Calling the Mother of Jesus “Co-redemptrix” or her subsequent role as “Mediatrix” implies a role of mediation by someone other than Jesus Christ, but scripture plainly states in 1 Timothy 2:5 that “there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus", and therefore no creature can rightly be a mediator.

The definition of “mediator” (in Greek, mesitis - “go-between”) is a person who intervenes between two other persons or parties for the goal of uniting or reconciling the parties. Applying this term to Jesus Christ, St. Paul indeed states that there is one mediator between the parties of God and humanity, namely the “man Christ Jesus.” No one therefore reaches God the Father except through the one, perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.

But the question still remains, does the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ prevent or rather provide for others to subordinately participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ? In other words, does the one exclusive mediation of Christ prevent any creature from participating in that one essential mediation? Or does its divine and human perfection allow others to share in his one mediation in a subordinate and secondary way?

Christian Scripture offers examples similar to this question of mediation where Christians are
obliged to participate in something that is also “one,” exclusive, and dependent entirely on the person of Jesus Christ.

The one Sonship of Jesus Christ. There is only one true son of God, Jesus Christ, who was begotten from God the Father (1 Jn. 1-4). But all Christians are called to participate in the one true sonship of Jesus Christ by becoming “adopted sons” in Christ (cf. 2 Cor. 5:17; 1 Jn. 3:1; Gal. 2:20), as a true sharing in the one sonship of Christ through baptism, which allows adopted sons and daughters to also share in the inheritance of the one Son, that of everlasting life.

Living in the One Christ. All Christians are called to share in the “one life” of Jesus Christ, for grace is to participate in the life and the love of Jesus Christ, and through him in the life and love of the Trinity. Thus, St. Paul teaches, “. . .it is not I, but Christ who lives in me(Gal. 2:20) and 2 Peter 1:4 calls Christians to become “partakers of the divine nature,” to live in the one Christ, and thus in the life of the Trinity.

The one Priesthood of Jesus Christ. All Christians also are called to share in different degrees in the one priesthood of Jesus Christ. The book of Hebrews identifies Jesus Christ as the one “high priest(cf. Heb. 3:1; 4:14; 5:10) who offers the great spiritual sacrifice of himself on Calvary. And yet Scripture calls all Christians, albeit on different levels of participation, ministerial (cf. Acts 14:22) or royal (cf. 1 Pet. 2:9), to participate in the one priesthood of Jesus Christ in offering “spiritual sacrifice.” All Christians are instructed to “offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God(1 Pet. 2:5, 2:9).

In all these cases, the New Testament calls Christians to share in that which is one and unique to Jesus Christ, the Alpha and Omega, in true though completely subordinate levels of participation. In reference, then, to Christ the one Mediator
(1 Tim. 2:5), we see the same Christian imperative for others to share or participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ, but in a secondary mediation entirely dependent upon the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.

The pivotal christological question must then be asked: Does such subordinate sharing in the one mediation of Christ obscure the one mediation of Christ, or rather does it manifest the glory of his one mediation? This is easily answered by imagining a contemporary world without “
adopted sons and daughters in Christ,” without Christians today sharing in the one life of Jesus Christ in grace, or without any Christians offering spiritual sacrifices in the Christian priesthood. Such an absence of human participation would only result in obscuring the one Sonship, the one High Priesthood, and the very Life of grace in Jesus Christ.

The same principle is true regarding participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ in a dependent and subordinate way:
the more human participation in the one mediation of Christ, the more the perfection, power, and glory of the unique and necessary mediation of Jesus Christ is manifested to the world.

Christian Scripture moreover offers several examples of God-instituted human mediators who cooperated by divine initiative in uniting humanity with God. The great prophets of the Old Testament were God-ordained mediators between Yahweh and the people of Israel, oftentimes seeking to return the people of Israel to their fidelity to Yahweh
(cf. Is. 1; Jer. 1; Ez. 2). The Old Testament patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses, etc., were at God’s initiative the human mediators of the saving covenant between Yahweh and the people of Israel (cf. Gen. 12:2; 15:18; Ex. 17:11). St. Paul identifies Moses’ mediation of the law to the Israelites: “Why then the law? It was ordained by God through an intermediary(Gal. 3:19-20). And the angels, with hundreds of mediating acts spanning Old and New Testaments, are God’s messengers, who mediate for reconciliation between God and the human family, both before and after the coming of Christ, the one Mediator (cf. Gen. 3:24; Lk. 1:26; Lk. 1:19).

Regarding Mary, Christian Scripture also clearly reveals the secondary and subordinate participation of the Mother of Jesus in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. At the Annunciation, Mary’s free and active “
yes” to the invitation of the angel mediates to the world Jesus Christ, the Redeemer of the world and the Author of all graces (cf. Lk. 1:38). For this unique participation in giving to the Redeemer his body and mediating the Source of all graces to the world, Mary can rightly be called both “Co-redemptrix” and “Mediatrix of all graces” as one who uniquely shares in the one mediation of Jesus Christ.

This unique Marian participation in Christ’s mediation, specific to the Redemption of Jesus Christ, is climaxed at Calvary. At the cross, her spiritual suffering united to the redemptive sacrifice of her Son, as the New Eve with the New Adam, leads to the universal spiritual fruits of the acquisition of the graces of redemption, which, in turn, leads to the gift of spiritual motherhood from the heart of the Crucified Christ to every human heart: “
Behold your mother!(Jn. 19:27). The Redeemer’s gift of his own mother as spiritual mother to all humanity leads to the spiritual nourishment by the Mother to her children in the order of grace. This constitutes the distribution of the graces of Calvary by Mary to her spiritual children as Mediatrix of all graces, which perpetually continues her unique sharing in the one saving mediation of Jesus Christ.

John Paul II explains the Catholic understanding of this unique Marian participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ:

Mary entered, in a way all her own, into the one mediation “between God and men” which is the mediation of the man Christ Jesus.... We must say that through this fullness of grace and supernatural life, she was especially predisposed to cooperation with Christ, the one Mediator of human salvation. And such cooperation is precisely this mediation subordinated to the mediation of Christ. In Mary’s case we have a special and exceptional mediation. [22]

And in his commentary on 1 Timothy 2:5 and Mary’s maternal mediation, John Paul II further states:

We recall that Mary’s mediation is essentially defined by her divine motherhood. Recognition of her role as mediatrix is moreover implicit in the expression “our Mother,” which presents the doctrine of Marian mediation by putting the accent on her motherhood.... In proclaiming Christ the one mediator (cf. 1 Tim. 2:5-6), the text of St. Paul’s Letter to Timothy excludes any other parallel mediation, but not subordinate mediation. In fact, before emphasizing the one exclusive mediation of Christ, the author urges “that supplications, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings be made for all men(2:1). Are not prayers a form of mediation? Indeed, according to St. Paul, the unique mediation of Christ is meant to encourage other dependent, ministerial forms of mediation.... In truth, what is Mary’s mater­nal mediation if not the Father’s gift to humanity? [23]

Therefore we can see Mary’s participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ as unique and unparalleled by any other human or angelic participation, and yet entirely subordinate and dependent upon the one mediation of Jesus Christ. As such, Mary’s motherly mediation manifests the true glory and power of Christ’s mediation as no other. The Marian titles and roles of Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces (and Advocate as well) do not in any way violate the prohibition of 1 Tim. 2:5 against any parallel, autonomous, or rival mediation, but bespeak a unique and exceptional motherly participation in that one, perfect, and saving mediation of Jesus Christ.

In the words of Anglican Oxford scholar, Dr. John Macquarrie:

The matter [of Marian mediation] cannot be settled by pointing to the danger of exaggeration and abuse, or by appealing to isolated texts of scripture as the verse quoted above from 1 Timothy 2:5 or by the desire not to say anything that might offend one’s partners in ecumenical dialogue. Unthinking enthusiasts may have elevated Mary’s position to a virtual equality with Christ, but this aberration is not a necessary consequence of recognizing that there may be a truth striving for expression in words like Mediatrix and
All responsible theologians would agree that Mary’s co-redemptive role is subordinate and auxiliary to the central role of Christ. But if she does have such a role, the more clearly we understand it, the better. And like other doctrines concerning Mary, it is not only saying something about her, but something more general about the Church as a whole, and even humanity as a whole.


1. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Personal Interview, Calcutta, August 14th 1993

2. John Paul II, Papal Address, Jan. 31, 1985, Guayaquil, Ecuador, (O.R., March
13, 1985).

3. St. Irenaeus of Lyons,
Adversus haeresus, III, 22, emphasis author’s.

4. St. Jerome. Epist. 22, 21.

5. Modestus of Jerusalem, Migne PG 86; 3287.

6 St. John Damascene, PG 86; 658.

7. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Ser. III,
super Salve.

8. St. Bonaventure, de don. Sp. 6; 14., emphasis author’s.

9. Cf. Calkins, “
Pope John Paul II’s Teaching on Marian Coredemption” as found in Miravalle, ed., Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations II, p.113.

10. Cf. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 21, 28.

11. Second Vatican Council,
Unitatis Redintegratio, n. 11.

12. John Paul II,
Ut Unum Sint, n. 36.

13. John Paul II,
Ut Unum Sint, 18.

14. Second Vatican Council,
Lumen Gentium, n. 56.

15. Lumen Gentium, n. 58.

Lumen Gentium, n. 61.

17. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.

18..  John Cardinal O’Connor, Endorsement Letter For Papal Definition of Mary, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, February 14, 1994.

19.  Martin Luther,
Commentary on the Magnificat, 1521, as quoted in Dr. Charles Dickson, A Protestant Pastor Looks at Mary, 1996, Our Sunday Visitor Press, p.41,42.


21. Dickson,
A Protestant Pastor Looks at Mary, p. 48-49.

22 John Paul II,
Redemptoris Mater, 21, 39.

23 John Paul II, Papal Address, Rome, October 1, 1997,
L’Osservatore Romano,
1997, 41.

24. J. Macquarrie, "Mary Co-redemptrix and Disputes over Justification and Grace"
Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations II
, p.246.

Copyright © 2001 Queenship Publishing - All Rights Reserved.

The above is reproduced with the kind permission of
Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici.

Version: 17th September 2001

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