Mary Co-redemptrix: A Response to 7 Common Objections
Dr. Mark Miravalle
Professor of Theology and Mariology
Franciscan University of Steubenville
March 25, 2001
To Lysbeth, my beloved wife; and to our precious children, John-Mark, Michael, Christina, Marianna, Joseph, Annaleah,
Mary-Bernadette, and Philumena.
Ernesto Cardinal Corripio Ahumada
May 1, 2001
On December 23, 2000, The New York Times ran a major
story on the international Catholic movement Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, which is seeking to encourage the papal definition of the Blessed Virgin Mary as “Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate.” Existing Catholic
teaching of Mary as a Coredemptrix refers to the unique participation of Mary, Mother of Jesus, in the redemption
accomplished by Jesus Christ, the divine Redeemer.
The New York Times article was in turn reprinted in a
great number of U.S. major newspapers and therefore sparked great and high-spirited debate across the country and
internationally over the idea of the Blessed Virgin as a “Co-redemptrix” with Jesus Christ.
Although slightly different in their expression, most objections to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the
Blessed Virgin Mary as Co-redemptrix fall into the same basic categories. The following is a summary of seven common
objections to Mary as Co-redemptnx, taken principally from recent newspaper publications, both secular and Christian.
A basic response will be offered to each objection.
Objection 1: Calling Mary a “Co-redemptrix” places her on an equal level with Jesus Christ, the Divine Son of God, making her something
like a fourth person of the Trinity, a goddess or quasi-divine goddess, which is blasphemy for any true Christian.
The Catholic Church’s use of the title “Co-redemptrix” as applied to the Mother of Jesus, in no sense places Mary on a level of equality with Jesus Christ,
the Divine Redeemer. There is an infinite difference between the divine person of Jesus Christ and the human person,
Mary. Rather, papal teaching has used the title
Co-redemptrix” to refer to the unique participation
of the Mother of Jesus with and under her divine son in the work of human redemption.
The term “co-redemptrix” is properly translated
“the woman with the redeemer” or more literally
“she who buys back with [the redeemer].” The
prefix “co” comes from the Latin term “cum” which means “with” and not “equal to.” Co-redemptrix
therefore as applied to Mary refers to her exceptional cooperation with and under her divine son Jesus Christ,
in the redemption of the human family, as manifested in Christian Scripture.
With Mary’s free and active “fiat” to the invitation
of the angel Gabriel to become the mother of Jesus, “Be it done unto me
according to your word” (Lk. 1:38), she uniquely cooperated with the work of redemption by giving the divine Redeemer his body, which was
the very instrument of human redemption. “We have been sanctified by the
offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all” (Heb.
10:10), and the body of Jesus Christ is given to him through the free, active, and unique
cooperation of the Virgin Mary. By virtue of giving flesh to the “Word
made flesh” (Jn. 1:14),
who in turn redeems humanity, the Virgin of Nazareth uniquely merits the title Co-redemptrix. In the words of the
late Mother Teresa of Calcutta, “Of course Mary is the Co-redemptrix —
she gave Jesus his body, and his body is what saved us.” 
The New Testament prophecy of Simeon in the temple also reveals the suffering, co-redemptive mission of Mary in
direct union with her Redeemer son in their one unified work of redemption:
“Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, ‘Behold, this child
is set for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and will be a sign of contradiction, and a sword shall pierce through
your own soul, too” (Lk. 2:34-35).
But the climax of Mary’s role as Co-redemptrix under her divine son takes place at the foot of the Cross, where
the total suffering of the mother’s heart is obediently united to the suffering of the Son’s heart in fulfillment
of the Father’s plan of redemption (cf. Gal. 4:4).
As the fruit of this redemptive suffering, Mary is given by the crucified Savior as the spiritual mother of all
peoples,: “Woman, behold your son!’ Then he
said to the disciple, ‘behold, your mother!”
(Jn. 19:27). As described by Pope John Paul II,
Mary was “spiritually crucified with her crucified son” at Calvary, and “her role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with
the glorification of her Son.”  Even after the accomplishment of the acquisition of the graces of redemption at Calvary, Mary’s co-redemptive
role continues in the distribution of those saving graces to the hearts of humanity.
The earliest Christian writers and Fathers of the Church explained Marian co-redemption with great profundity in
simplicity in the first theological model of Mary as the “New Eve.” Essentially, they articulated that as Eve, the first “mother
of the living” (Gen. 3:20),
was directly instrumental with Adam, the father of the human race, in the loss of grace for all humanity, so too
Mary, the “New Eve,” was directly instrumental
with Jesus Christ, whom St. Paul calls the “New Adam”
(Cf. 1 Cor. 15:45-48), in the restoration of grace
to all humanity. In the words of 2nd century Church Father, St. Irenaeus: “Just
as Eve, wife of Adam, yet still a virgin, became by her disobedience the cause of death for herself and the whole
human race, so Mary, too, espoused yet a virgin, became by her obedience the cause
of salvation for herself and the whole human race.”
In light of her unique and direct cooperation with the Redeemer in the restoration of grace for the human
family (cf. Gen. 3:15), Mary became universally
known in the early Church as the “New Mother of the Living,” and her instrumental co-redemption with Christ was well summed up in the succinct expression of 4th
century Church Father, St. Jerome: “Death through Eve, life through Mary.” 
Explicit references to Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in redeeming
or “buying back” humanity from the slavery of
Satan and sin is present throughout Christian Tradition. For example, the 7th century Church writer, Modestus of
Jerusalem, states that through Mary, we “are redeemed from the tyranny
of the devil.”  St.
John Damascene (8th century) greets her: “Hail thou, through whom we are
redeemed from the curse.” 
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (12th century) preaches that “through her, man
was redeemed.”  The
great Franciscan Doctor, St. Bonaventure (13th century), aptly summarizes Christian Tradition in this teaching:
“That woman (namely Eve), drove us out of Paradise and sold us; but this
one (Mary) brought us back again and bought us.” 
Although there was never any question of the total and radical dependency of the Virgin Mary’s participation in
redemption upon the divine work and merits of Jesus Christ in the minds of the Church fathers and doctors, nonetheless
early Christian Tradition did not hesitate to teach and preach the unparalleled intimate participation of the woman,
Mary, in the “buying back” or redeeming of the
human race from the slavery of Satan. As humanity was sold by a man and a woman, so it was God’s will that humanity
would be bought back by a Man and a woman.
It is upon this rich Christian foundation that 20th century popes and saints have used the title Co-redemptrix
for Mary’s unique role in human redemption, as exemplified in the contemporary use of Co-redemptrix for Mary by
Pope John Paul II on five occasions during his present pontificate.  “Co-redemptrix” as used by the popes
means no more that Mary is a goddess equal with Jesus Christ than St. Paul’s identification of all Christians as
“God’s co-workers” (1 Cor. 3:9) means that Christians are gods equal to the one God.
All Christians are rightly called to be co-workers or “co-redeemers” with Jesus Christ (cf. Col. 1:24) in
the reception and cooperation with grace necessary for our own redemption and the redemption of others — personal
subjective redemption made possible by the historic objective redemption or “buying
back” accomplished by Jesus Christ, the “New
Adam,” the Redemptor, and Mary,
the “New Eve,” the Co-redemptrix.
Objection 2: Calling
the Blessed Virgin Mary “Coredemptrix”
is against proper Christian ecumenism, as it leads to division between Catholics and other Christians.
Arguably the most commonly posed objection to the use of Co-redemptrix (let alone any potential definition of the
doctrine) is its perceived opposition to Christian ecumenism. Therefore we must begin with an accurate definition
of authentic Christian ecumenism and its appropriate corresponding activity as understood by the Catholic Church.
In his papal document on ecumenism Ut Unum Sint (“that they all may be one” (Jn.
17:21), Pope John Paul II defines authentic Christian
ecumenism in terms of prayer “as the soul” and dialogue “as the body” working towards the
ultimate goal of true and lasting Christian unity. 
At the same time, the Catholic imperative to work and strive for Christian unity does not permit in any degree the reduction or dilution of Catholic doctrinal teaching,
as such would both lack Catholic integrity and concurrently be misleading in dialogue with other non-Catholic Christians
as to what the Catholic Church truly believes.
As the Second Vatican Council clearly teaches in terms of ecumenical dialogue, “It
is, of course, essential that doctrine be clearly presented in its entirety. Nothing is so foreign to the spirit
of ecumenism as a false conciliatory approach which harms the purity of Catholic doctrine and obscures its assured
genuine meaning.” 
John Paul II further explains: “With regard to the study of areas of disagreement,
the Council requires that the whole body of doctrine be clearly presented. At the same time, it asks that the manner
and method of expounding the Catholic faith should not be a hindrance to dialogue with our brothers and sisters....
Full communion of course will have to come about through the acceptance of the whole truth into which the
Holy Spirit guides Christ’s disciples. Hence all forms of reductionism or facile ‘agreement’ must be absolutely
An accurate understanding then of ecumenism from the Catholic perspective is the critical Church mandate to pray,
to dialogue, and to work together in charity and in truth in the seeking of true Christian unity among all brothers
and sisters in Christ, but without any compromise in presenting the full doctrinal teachings of the Church.
The present pope, so personally dedicated to authentic Christian unity, again affirms: “The unity willed by God can be attained only by the adherence of all to the content of revealed
faith in its entirety. In matters of faith, compromise is in contradiction with God who is Truth. In the Body of
Christ, ‘the way, the truth, and the life’ (Jn.l4:6),
who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?”
Let us now apply this understanding of ecumenism to the question of Mary Co-redemptrix. The Co-redemptrix
title for Mary has been used in repeated papal teaching, and the doctrine of Marian co-redemption as Mary’s unique
participation with and under Jesus Christ in the redemption of humanity constitutes the repeated doctrinal
teaching of the Second Vatican Council:
....She devoted herself totally, as handmaid of the Lord, to the person and
work of her Son, under and with him, serving the mystery of redemption, by the grace of Almighty God. Rightly,
therefore, the Fathers see Mary not merely as passively engaged by God, but as freely cooperating in the work of
man’s salvation through faith and obedience. 
Thus the Blessed Virgin advanced in her pilgrimage of faith, and faithfully
persevered in union with her Son unto the cross, where she stood, in keeping with the divine plan, enduring with
her only begotten Son the intensity of his suffering, associated herself with his sacrifice in her mother’s heart,
and lovingly consenting to the immolation of this victim which was born of her. 
She conceived, brought forth, and nourished Christ, she presented Him to the
Father in the temple, shared her Son’s suffering as He died on the cross. Thus, in a wholly singular way
she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope, and burning charity in the work of the Savior in restoring supernatural
life to souls. For this reason she is a mother to us in the order of grace. 
Thereby, there is no question that Marian Co-redemption constitutes the doctrinal teaching of
the Catholic Church and as such must be presented in any true articulation of Catholic teaching, which critically includes the domain of true ecumenical dialogue.
To therefore claim that Mary Co-redemptrix in title and doctrine is in any way contrary to the ecumenical mission
of the Church is fundamentally to misunderstand the ecumenical mission of the Church itself. Full Catholic doctrine,
including the doctrine of Marian co-redemption, must be included for any true dialogue seeking Christian unity.
Moreover, the purposeful absence of Mary Coredemptrix in full ecumenical dialogue and in the overall ecumenical
mission of the Church would lack integrity and justice for the Catholic ecumenist towards non-Catholic Christians
who have presumably, on their part, brought the full teachings of their particular ecclesial body to the
tables of dialogue. To return to the Christian admonition of John Paul II: “In
the Body of Christ, ‘the way, the truth, and the life’ (Jn.14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?” 
Therefore calling the Blessed Virgin Mary a “Co-redemptrix” in light of Christian Scripture and Christian Tradition is in no sense contrary to ecumenism, but rather
constitutes an essential element of the Christian integrity demanded by true ecumenism, since Marian co-redemption
constitutes a doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church.
In fact, if the doctrine of Co-redemptrix presently constitutes a source of confusion for some Christians, connoting
for some an image of goddess or other concepts of Marian excesses, then it appears all the more appropriate that
a clear articulation of this Marian doctrine be given to brother and sister Christians in ecumenical dialogue.
There is also the potential benefit of a formal papal definition providing the greatest possible clarity from the
highest possible Catholic authority. In the words of the late John Cardinal O’Connor of New York: “Clearly, a formal papal definition would be articulated in such precise terminology that
other Christians would lose their anxiety that we do not distinguish adequately between Mary’s unique association
with Christ and the redemptive power exercised by Christ alone.” 
Another legitimate ecumenical perspective on Marian co-redemption and her subsequent spiritual motherhood is that
as spiritual mother of all peoples, Mary can be a principal means of Christian unity among divided Christian brothers
and sisters, rather than being its prime obstacle. Lutheran pastor Rev. Dr. Charles Dickson calls on Protestant
Christianity to re-examine the documented positive Marian defense and devotion of many of its own founders, as
manifested, for example, in the words of Martin Luther in his Commentary on the Magnificat: “May the tender Mother of God herself procure for me the spirit
of wisdom profitably and thoroughly to expound this song of hers.... May Christ grant us a right under standing
... through the intercession and for the sake of His dear Mother Mary...."  Luther goes on to call Mary the “workshop of God,” the “Queen
of heaven,” and states: “The Virgin Mary means
to say simply that her praise will be sung from one generation to another so that there will never be a time when
she will not be praised.” 
On the role of Mary’s universal spiritual motherhood as an instrument of Christian unity, Dr. Dickson comments
In our time, we are still faced with the tragic divisions among the world’s
Christians. Yet, standing on the brink of a bright new ecumenical age, Mary as model of catholicity, or universality,
becomes even more important. In the course of many centuries from the beginning of the Church, from the time of
Mary and the Apostles, the motherhood of the Church was one. This fundamental motherhood cannot vanish, even though
divisions occur. Mary, through her motherhood, maintains the universality of Christ’s flock. As the entire Christian
community turns to her, the possibility of a new birth, a reconciliation, increases. So Mary, the mother
of the Church, is also a source of reconciliation among her scattered and divided children. 
Objection 3 : Calling
the Mother of Jesus “Co-redemptrix”
or her subsequent role as “Mediatrix”
implies a role of mediation by someone other than Jesus Christ, but scripture plainly states in 1 Timothy 2:5 that “there
is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus",
and therefore no creature can rightly be a mediator.
The definition of “mediator”
(in Greek, mesitis - “go-between”) is a person who intervenes between two other persons or parties for the goal of uniting or reconciling
the parties. Applying this term to Jesus Christ, St. Paul indeed states that there is one mediator between the
parties of God and humanity, namely the “man Christ Jesus.” No one therefore reaches God the Father except through the one, perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.
But the question still remains, does the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ prevent or rather provide for others
to subordinately participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ? In other words, does the one exclusive mediation
of Christ prevent any creature from participating in that one essential mediation? Or does its divine and human
perfection allow others to share in his one mediation in a subordinate and secondary way?
Christian Scripture offers examples similar to this question of mediation where Christians are obliged to participate in something that is also “one,” exclusive, and dependent entirely on the person of Jesus Christ.
The one Sonship of Jesus Christ. There is only one true
son of God, Jesus Christ, who was begotten from God the Father (1 Jn. 1-4). But all Christians are called to participate in the one true sonship of Jesus Christ by becoming “adopted sons” in Christ (cf.
2 Cor. 5:17; 1 Jn. 3:1; Gal. 2:20), as a true sharing in the one sonship of Christ through
baptism, which allows adopted sons and daughters to also share in the inheritance of the one Son, that of everlasting
Living in the One Christ. All Christians are called to
share in the “one life” of Jesus Christ, for
grace is to participate in the life and the love of Jesus
Christ, and through him in the life and love of the Trinity. Thus, St. Paul teaches, “. . .it is not I, but Christ who lives in me” (Gal. 2:20) and 2 Peter 1:4 calls
Christians to become “partakers of the divine nature,” to live in the one Christ, and thus in the life of the Trinity.
The one Priesthood of Jesus Christ. All Christians also
are called to share in different degrees in the one priesthood of Jesus Christ. The book of Hebrews identifies
Jesus Christ as the one “high priest” (cf. Heb. 3:1; 4:14; 5:10) who offers the
great spiritual sacrifice of himself on Calvary. And yet Scripture calls all Christians, albeit on different levels
of participation, ministerial (cf. Acts 14:22)
or royal (cf. 1 Pet. 2:9), to participate in the
one priesthood of Jesus Christ in offering “spiritual sacrifice.” All Christians are instructed to “offer spiritual sacrifices
acceptable to God” (1 Pet. 2:5, 2:9).
In all these cases, the New Testament calls Christians to share in that which is one and unique to Jesus Christ,
the Alpha and Omega, in true though completely subordinate levels of participation. In reference, then, to Christ
the one Mediator (1 Tim. 2:5), we see the same
Christian imperative for others to share or participate in the one mediation of Jesus
Christ, but in a secondary mediation entirely dependent upon the one perfect mediation
of Jesus Christ.
The pivotal christological question must then be asked: Does such subordinate sharing in the one mediation of Christ
obscure the one mediation of Christ, or rather does it manifest the glory of his one mediation? This is easily
answered by imagining a contemporary world without “adopted sons and daughters
in Christ,” without Christians today sharing in the one life of Jesus Christ in grace,
or without any Christians offering spiritual sacrifices in the Christian priesthood. Such an absence of human participation
would only result in obscuring the one Sonship, the one High Priesthood, and the very Life of grace in Jesus Christ.
The same principle is true regarding participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ in a dependent and subordinate
way: the more human participation in the one mediation of Christ, the more the perfection,
power, and glory of the unique and necessary mediation of Jesus Christ is manifested to the world.
Christian Scripture moreover offers several examples of God-instituted human mediators who cooperated by divine
initiative in uniting humanity with God. The great prophets of the Old Testament were God-ordained mediators between
Yahweh and the people of Israel, oftentimes seeking to return the people of Israel to their fidelity to Yahweh
(cf. Is. 1; Jer. 1; Ez. 2). The Old Testament patriarchs,
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses, etc., were at God’s initiative the human mediators of the saving covenant between
Yahweh and the people of Israel (cf. Gen. 12:2; 15:18; Ex. 17:11). St. Paul identifies Moses’ mediation of the law to the Israelites: “Why
then the law? It was ordained by God through an intermediary” (Gal. 3:19-20). And the angels, with hundreds of mediating acts spanning
Old and New Testaments, are God’s messengers, who mediate for reconciliation between God and the human family,
both before and after the coming of Christ, the one Mediator (cf. Gen. 3:24;
Lk. 1:26; Lk. 1:19).
Regarding Mary, Christian Scripture also clearly reveals the secondary and subordinate participation of the Mother
of Jesus in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. At the Annunciation, Mary’s free and active “yes” to the invitation of the angel mediates to the world Jesus Christ,
the Redeemer of the world and the Author of all graces (cf. Lk. 1:38). For this unique participation in giving to the Redeemer his body and mediating the Source of all graces
to the world, Mary can rightly be called both “Co-redemptrix” and “Mediatrix of all graces” as
one who uniquely shares in the one mediation of Jesus Christ.
This unique Marian participation in Christ’s mediation, specific to the Redemption of Jesus Christ, is climaxed
at Calvary. At the cross, her spiritual suffering united to the redemptive sacrifice of her Son, as the New Eve
with the New Adam, leads to the universal spiritual fruits of the acquisition of the graces of redemption, which,
in turn, leads to the gift of spiritual motherhood from the heart of the Crucified Christ to every human heart:
“Behold your mother!” (Jn. 19:27). The Redeemer’s gift of his own mother as spiritual mother to
all humanity leads to the spiritual nourishment by the Mother to her children in the order of grace. This constitutes
the distribution of the graces of Calvary by Mary to her spiritual children as Mediatrix of all graces, which perpetually
continues her unique sharing in the one saving mediation of Jesus Christ.
John Paul II explains the Catholic understanding of this unique Marian participation in the one mediation of Jesus
Mary entered, in a way all her own, into the one mediation “between God and
men” which is the mediation of the man Christ Jesus.... We must say that through this fullness of grace and supernatural
life, she was especially predisposed to cooperation with Christ, the one Mediator of human salvation. And such
cooperation is precisely this mediation subordinated to the mediation of Christ. In Mary’s case we have a special
and exceptional mediation. 
And in his commentary on 1 Timothy 2:5 and Mary’s maternal mediation, John Paul II further states:
We recall that Mary’s mediation is essentially defined by her divine motherhood.
Recognition of her role as mediatrix is moreover implicit in the expression “our Mother,” which presents the doctrine
of Marian mediation by putting the accent on her motherhood.... In proclaiming Christ the one mediator (cf. 1 Tim. 2:5-6), the text of St. Paul’s Letter to
Timothy excludes any other parallel mediation, but not subordinate mediation. In fact, before emphasizing the one
exclusive mediation of Christ, the author urges “that supplications, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings be
made for all men” (2:1). Are not prayers a form of mediation? Indeed, according to St. Paul, the unique mediation
of Christ is meant to encourage other dependent, ministerial forms of mediation.... In truth, what is Mary’s maternal
mediation if not the Father’s gift to humanity? 
Therefore we can see Mary’s participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ as unique and
unparalleled by any other human or angelic participation, and yet entirely subordinate and dependent upon the one
mediation of Jesus Christ. As such, Mary’s motherly mediation manifests the true glory and power of Christ’s mediation
as no other. The Marian titles and roles of Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces (and Advocate as well) do
not in any way violate the prohibition of 1 Tim. 2:5
against any parallel, autonomous, or rival mediation, but bespeak a unique and exceptional motherly participation
in that one, perfect, and saving mediation of Jesus Christ.
In the words of Anglican Oxford scholar, Dr. John Macquarrie:
The matter [of Marian mediation] cannot be settled by pointing to the danger
of exaggeration and abuse, or by appealing to isolated texts of scripture as the verse quoted above from 1 Timothy 2:5 or by the desire not to say anything
that might offend one’s partners in ecumenical dialogue. Unthinking enthusiasts may have elevated Mary’s position
to a virtual equality with Christ, but this aberration is not a necessary consequence of recognizing that there may be a truth striving for expression in words
like Mediatrix and
All responsible theologians would agree that Mary’s co-redemptive role is subordinate and auxiliary to the central
role of Christ. But if she does have such a role, the more clearly we understand it, the better. And like other
doctrines concerning Mary, it is not only saying something about her, but something more general about the Church
as a whole, and even humanity as a whole. 
1. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Personal Interview, Calcutta, August 14th 1993
2. John Paul II, Papal Address, Jan. 31, 1985, Guayaquil, Ecuador, (O.R., March
3. St. Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus haeresus, III, 22,
4. St. Jerome. Epist. 22, 21.
5. Modestus of Jerusalem, Migne PG 86; 3287.
6 St. John Damascene, PG 86; 658.
7. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Ser. III, super Salve.
8. St. Bonaventure, de don. Sp. 6; 14., emphasis author’s.
9. Cf. Calkins, “Pope John Paul II’s Teaching on Marian Coredemption” as found in Miravalle, ed., Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological
Foundations II, p.113.
10. Cf. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint,
11. Second Vatican Council, Unitatis Redintegratio, n.
12. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, n. 36.
13. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.
14. Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium, n. 56.
15. Lumen Gentium, n. 58.
16. Lumen Gentium, n. 61.
17. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.
18.. John Cardinal O’Connor, Endorsement Letter For Papal Definition of Mary, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate,
February 14, 1994.
19. Martin Luther, Commentary on the Magnificat,
1521, as quoted in Dr. Charles Dickson, A Protestant Pastor Looks at Mary, 1996, Our Sunday Visitor Press, p.41,42.
21. Dickson, A Protestant Pastor Looks at Mary, p. 48-49.
22 John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, 21, 39.
23 John Paul II, Papal Address, Rome, October 1, 1997, L’Osservatore Romano,
Macquarrie, "Mary Co-redemptrix
and Disputes over Justification and Grace"
in Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations II, p.246.
Copyright © 2001 Queenship Publishing - All Rights Reserved.
The above is reproduced with the kind permission of Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici.
Version: 17th September 2001